Spontaneous Malignancies

Overall there is a 3- to 4-fold increase compared with age matched controls in the general population.3,4 Apart from skin tumors (mostly squamous cell carcinomas—SCCs), that show 4- to 21-fold increased incidence, cancers that are frequently encountered in the general population (carcinomas of the lung, breast, prostate, colon and invasive uterine cervical carcinomas) show no increase, but a variety of mostly uncommon neoplasms are encountered. Epidemiologic studies show increases of 28- to 49-fold of posttransplant lymphoproliferations and lymphomas, (frequently grouped together as posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease PTLD), 29-fold of lip carcinomas, 400- to 500-fold of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) 100-fold of vulvar and anal carcinomas, 20- to 38-fold of hepatocellular carcinomas, 14- to l6-fold of in situ uterine cervical carcinomas, and small increases in sarcomas

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