Although the majority of transplant candidates are anergic, tuberculin skin testing (PPD) may identify candidates at risk for reactivation tuberculosis and, therefore, is performed during the pre-transplantation evaluation. Chemoprophylaxis with isoniazid for nine to twelve months is recommended in the following situations: recipients with a positive PPD prior to transplantation, radiographic evidence of old active tuberculosis and no prior prophylaxis, a history of inadequately treated tuberculosis, or close contact to a patient with active tuberculosis; recipients of allografts from a known infected or inadequately treated donor; or recipients with a newly positive PPD (recent converters). Chemoprophylaxis may be considered for recipients from highly endemic areas.

Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

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