Preformed Natural Xenoantibody Pnxab

A critical role for preformed natural xenoantibody (XNA) in the pathogenesis of HAR follows from several lines of evidence: 1) the rejection process occurs extremely rapidly, indicating a role for circulating factors, rather than a cell-medicated response, 2) the immunopathology of rejected xenografts in disparate species combinations reveals antibody deposition on donor endothelium, 3) removal of PNXAb is frequently associated with prolonged xenograft survival, and 4) infusion of PNXAb leads to rejection of organs previously engrafted in modified recipients.

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