The most frequent bacterial complications of renal transplantation arise in the urinary tract. Predisposing factors include renal insufficiency, decreased urine flow through the urinary epithelium, prolonged bladder catheterization, and underlying medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus. The bacteria implicated in such infections are the same as for the general population and include enteric gram-negative bacilli, enterococci, staphylococci, and P aeruginosa.

Surgical wound infections caused by gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli also occur after renal transplantation. Finally, line-related bacteremias can complicate the post-operative course.

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