Monitoring

Routine monitoring includes electrocardiography, noninvasive blood pressure determination, pulse oximetry, multigas analysis, and peripheral nerve stimulation. For patients with coronary artery disease or poorly controlled hypertension an arterial catheter should be placed to allow continuous blood pressure monitoring and better control of blood pressure. A central venous catheter may be placed after induction of anesthesia to assist in the perioperative volume management, but is only helpful in sicker patients. The central venous catheter is commonly avoided in living-related kidney transplants. A pulmonary artery catheter is rarely indicated. Intraoperative laboratory tests should include determination of hemoglobin or hematocrit, serum electrolytes, blood glucose, and acid-base state.

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

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