Introduction

Pediatric lung transplantation has been performed in a limited number of centers worldwide since 1990, and the number of pediatric lung transplants has decreased since the mid-1990's. According to the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) registry, approximately 60 lung transplants are performed annually in patients under the age of 18 years. The majority of these patients are adolescents (Fig. 13D.1). Most children undergo double lung transplantation using the bilateral sequential technique. Cardiopulmonary bypass is routinely used for pediatric lung transplantation.

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