The initial attempts at human lung transplantation began forty years ago and were met with no long-term success. However, in the last twenty years lung transplantation has enjoyed increasing success and has become the mainstay of therapy for most forms of end-stage lung disease. Improved donor and recipient selection, technical advances, superior immunosuppressive strategies, and newer antibiotic regimens have improved results significantly. The operative mortality rate is now in the range of 9%. One, 2 and 5-year survival rates are 80%, 70% and 50% respectively. The Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation reported in 2002 that almost 15,000 lung transplants have been performed worldwide and that more than 1,500 lung transplants are performed annually.1

This chapter provides an overview of the pre-operative evaluation as well as the intra-and post-operative management of the lung transplant recipient.

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