perioperative period, the stentogram rules out a urine leak. In the early postoperative period, radiologic studies determine causes of graft dysfunction. A renogram is used to show blood flow to the graft. Ultrasound will show (1) blood flow to the graft, (2) the presence of perinephric masses, (3) ascites, and (4) hydronephrosis.

Invasive, pediatric, radiologic procedures are similar to adults. Percutaneous nephrostogram is used to determine the level of obstruction in recipients with hydronephrosis. If the obstruction is due to a ureteral stricture, it can be dilated with a ballon catheter and a ureteral stent placed across the stricture. A nephrostomy tube is placed to drain the upper urinary tract. Arterial strictures can be dilated with ballon angioplasty.

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