elapse after death is pronounced before initiating organ retrieval. Because of the presence of brainstem reflexes, the family must be informed that if the patient continues to have spontaneous respirations beyond a certain period of time (usually > 1 hr), the patient will be returned to the ward or ICU to expire without organ retrieval. Although organs can be transplanted with up to 1 hour of warm ischemia with good results, warm ischemic times of greater than 1 hour will likely result in less than optimal organ function.

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