Cardiac transplantation is an accepted therapy for many forms of end-stage heart disease. According to the Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT), the principle diagnoses among heart transplant recipients are ischemic cardiomyopathy (44%) and idiopathic cardiomyopathy (43%) (Fig. 11.1).

There are no strict criteria dictating when a patient with severe heart disease should be listed for heart transplantation. Characteristics of patients for whom heart transplantation should be considered include:

1. end-stage heart disease refractory to maximal medical management,

2. an estimated survival without transplantation of less than approximately 6-12 months,

3. not amenable to any other conventional therapy.

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