Positive Parenting Tips for Toddlers

Talking To Toddlers

Talking to Toddlers is a program that offers effective parenting tips to help shape behavior in toddlers. It is a creation of Chris Thompson, a parenting professional and certified NLP practitioner. No doubt he has all it takes to address the issue of parenting. The program helps parents understand problems often experienced by children, include the reasons behind their behaviors. In most cases, parents communicate to children in inappropriate ways without know. This may lead kids to behave contrary to parents expectations. This is among the major problems this program helps to fix. You will be able to learn about the word you often misuse and evoke bad reactions from kids. Kids are often misunderstood and this makes it difficult for them to learn. This guide has helped thousands of parents across the world and it is going to help you too. Buy it today and start learning the best strategies you can use to train your children. More here...

Talking To Toddlers Summary


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Author: Chris Thompson
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This is one of the best ebooks I have read on this field. The writing style was simple and engaging. Content included was worth reading spending my precious time.

Purchasing this ebook was one of the best decisions I have made, since it is worth every penny I invested on it. I highly recommend this to everyone out there.

Toddler Talk: Techniques & Games

Bridget Giraldo is a licensed, American Speech-language Hearing Association (ASHA) certified, and a speech-language pathologist. She provides knowledge and the expertise to assist others to enhance their communication skills; parents especially benefit from her helpful tips concerning simple ideas on how to include language and speech activities daily as they interact with their young ones. Bridget has worked in inpatient rehab, acute care, sub-acute care, private and public schools, private practice, and out-patient rehab. Her main objective in most of her publications is to empower all parents, professionals, and any caregiver in the aspect of speech and language therapy. The speech-language pathologist has a website called speech therapy talk where she shares plenty of ideas that touch on language and speech therapy as well as other practical, easy activities to do at home. The book Toddler talk: Technique and games are designed to give directions to parents so that they become the driving force of change for their children; it provides parents with professional and therapy ideas. The book will help children to develop life-changing skills crucial for academic and social development. The eBook is available online; download a copy. Every suggestion has been well proven to be practical and effective. More here...

Toddler Talk Techniques & Games Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Bridget Giraldo
Price: $19.99

Psychosexual development

While physical gender is mainly determined by chromosmes, hormonal activity in utero can also influence physical and psychosexual development to some extent. Problems associated with gender identity ('tomboy girls' and 'sissy boys') arise in the toddler and preschool years. Follow-up studies of feminine boys find that they show an increased rate of homosexual behaviour later, but there is still considerable debate as to the mechanisms underlying the development of homosexuality. As more societies develop less discriminatory practices, so more homosexual behaviour is shown. Even so, homosexual boys often clear about their sexual orientation before puberty still experience discrimination and show higher rates of exclusion and even suicidal behaviour than others.

Physical Exam Key Points

Below-average weight, length (height) and head circumference, particularly infants and toddlers with measurements below the fifth percentile, suggest growth delay or failure to thrive (see Appendix G, Growth Charts, p. 766). Psychosocial factors or neglect are responsible for many cases of failure to thrive. It is important to compare current measurements with prior measurements.

Is this an acute or chronic problem

Defined as diarrhea that lasts longer than 4 weeks. Common causes include chronic, nonspecific diarrhea (toddler's diarrhea), lactose intolerance, milk-protein allergy, encopresis, irritable bowel syndrome, various infections, drugs, and IBD. It can present with an acute exacerbation.

Chronic Subdural Hematoma

In children, the subject of 'chronic subdural effusion' or 'benign extra-axial hydrocephalus' deserves attention. This entity has not been uniformly defined but generally refers to infants and toddlers with a large head circumference (often > 95th percentile) and enlarged subarachnoid and or subdural CSF spaces. Some of these children have a family history of large head circumference and usually follow a benign clinical course. Other cases are thought to result from repeated minor subdural or subarachnoid hemorrhages over time. The latter children sometimes require subdural-to-peritoneal shunting because of severe macrocephaly, chronic neurological deficit or developmental delay. Some experts maintain that benign subdural effusions can convert to hemorrhagic effusions as the result of everyday minor head trauma common in infants and toddlers. Others argue that all cases of hemorrhagic subdural effusion represent nonaccidental trauma.

Immediate Questions

Any feeding difficulties In an infant, choking, slow feeding, tiring with feeding, poor suck, vomiting, or regurgitation suggests GI, cardiac, or neurologic disorder. In a toddler or older child with decreased appetite, consider dental disease, constipation, chronic illness, or apathy.

Developmental Disorders The Case Of Autism

Autism show deviant patterns of reciprocal gaze behavior with their caregivers as well as deficits in the triadic coordination among themselves, adult, and object (Charman, 2003). Interestingly, joint attention in 3- and 4-year-old children with autism is positively correlated with orbitofrontal function, as measured by tasks that engage this region in normal subjects (Dawson et al., 2002). Orbitofrontal cortex is necessary for adding flexibility to stimulus-reward associations (Fellows & Farah, 2003 Rolls, 1999). An inability to assign stimulus-reward associations and flexibly modify them could be detrimental to the development of joint attention, as joint attention depends on social rewards, such as smiles, that are more variable than nonsocial rewards. Consistent with this hypothesis, autistic infants and toddlers prefer highly contingent, nonvariable feedback, while typically developing children instead prefer variable, imperfect feedback (Gergely & Watson, 1999). The...

Respiratory rate may be respiratory compensation for metabolic

Examination often requires diversionary tactics. Exam findings such as localized tenderness often need to be repeated from different approaches to validate finding. Rupture of the appendix before operative treatment is the rule in infants and young toddlers. Tenderness at McBurney point, if elicited, is reliable as a sign of appendicitis. Liver size, as measured by distance of the edge below the right costal margin at the mid-clavicular line (MCL), requires knowledge of changing anatomic ratios with growth. A liver edge 3 cm below the right costal margin at the MCL may be normal in a newborn but marks hepatomegaly in a 10-year-old child. Tenderness of the costovertebral angle (CVA) in older toddlers and children points to a renal source of infection.

Was the substance truly blood Was it the patients blood

Epistaxis Swallowed nasopharyngeal bleeding from trauma or mucosal ulceration can cause hematemesis. Was there a possible ingestion Does patient regularly take medication(s) Possible ingestions resulting in mucosal irritation include NSAIDs, aspirin, theophylline, steroids, batteries, and alcohol. In toddlers or mentally handicapped patients, consider the possibility of a foreign body.

Treatment Approach for High Risk Disease

The high-risk group in neuroblastoma is comprised primarily of children (> 1 year of age at diagnosis) with stage-4 disease and stage 3 with tumor MYCN amplification or unfavorable histopathology. Although there is no worldwide consensus, stage 2 plus MYCN amplification, or stage-3, stage-4, and stage-4s infants plus MYCN gene amplification are currently treated in the COG with high-risk treatment protocols. Recent data suggest that this must be further qualified, as analysis of the most recent high-risk study in the Children's Cancer Group showed that toddlers between 12 and 18 months of age with stage-4 MYCN-non-amplified disease have an improved outcome compared with those > 18 months (Schmidt et al. 2003). Similarly, studies from the Pediatric Oncology Group demonstrate that hyperdiploidy and non-amplified MYCN confers a favorable prognosis in children 12-18 months of age with disseminated neuroblastoma (George et al. 2003). The 4-year survival for stage-4 patients > 1 year...

Eyes Perform funduscopic exam for retinal hemorrhages in cases

Examine infant with all clothes removed so subtle bruises, burns, or bites are not missed. Any bruise is abnormal in an infant, and patterns of bruising must be defined in toddlers. Hemorrhagic rash suggests meningococcal infection. Local areas of redness, warmth, induration, and tenderness indicate cellulitis or underlying soft tissue infection.

How Language Provides A Route Into Other Minds

First we consider language as an interindividual communication system and investigate the role of social discourse in opening up a route into other minds, particularly during the toddler and preschool period. Then we consider language as an intraindividual representational system and investigate how children's own developing linguistic ability in semantics and syntax further develops their understanding of mind during this period. Finally, we consider pragmatics, where the interrelation of language and theory of mind is most evident and where it is clear that the relationship is bidirectional.

Differential Diagnosis

With chronic inadequate calories and nutrients, patient's weight drifts first, then height falls off the curve, and finally head circumference. It is important to evaluate weight-for-height, a measure of body leanness, or the body mass index (BMI weight in kg x height in meters squared). It is critical to obtain accurate and consistent measurements with nude weights of all infants and toddlers, and weight in underpants or gown in older children.

General issues Change over time

Because mental processes and behaviour change as a child develops, it is not always clear whether the same diagnoses should be applied across the age range. Thus, a highly aggressive toddler may throw himself screaming onto the floor in daily tantrums, whereas a highly aggressive teenager may assault elderly people and rob them. Do they suffer from the same disorder ICD-10 holds that they do both meet criteria for conduct disorder, which is defined in terms of antisocial behaviour that is excessive for the individual's age, and that violates societal norms and the rights of others. DSM-IV on the other hand has two separate diagnoses, oppositional-defiant disorder for the younger case, and conduct disorder for the older. However, as both diagnoses have similar correlates and there is strong continuity from one to the other, the validity of the division is questionable. Yet current adult psychiatric schemes have no diagnosis at all to apply to antisocial behaviour, unless it is part of...

Further clinical examination and testing32

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 325-36. . Bruck, M., Ceci, S.J., and Hembrooke, H. ( 998). Reliability and credibility of young children's reports from research to policy and practice. American Psychologist, 53, 136-5 . 2. Steward, M.S. and Steward, D.S. ( 996). Interviewing young children about body touch and handling. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 61, -236. 3. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ( 997). Practice parameters for the psychiatric assessment of infants and toddlers (0-36 months). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 21S-36S.

Effects on parenting and the family

Mothers of children with mental retardation (learning disability) and severe sleep problems have been reported to be more irritable, concerned about their own health, and less affectionate towards their children, with less control and increased use of punishment than mothers of such children without sleep problems. (7) Similar associations have also been suggested between sleeplessness in toddlers in the general population and family problems, including marital discord and possibly physical abuse of the child.(8)

Molecular Diagnostic Techniques

Virus, parvovirus, influenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus. The patients were divided into groups by age neonates (age between 1 day and 1 month) infants (age between 1 month and 1 year) toddlers (age between 1 year and 5 years) children (age between 5 years and 13 years) adolescents (age between 13 years and 18 years) and adults (age greater than 18 years). More than 65 of the samples came from patients between the ages of 1 day and 13 years more than 600 of the patients had a diagnosis of myocarditis, and the remainder had DCM. More than 200 samples from individuals with medical histories inconsistent with these criteria were included as unaffected, age-matched controls.

The effect of a mentally retarded child on the parents

Informal support from the family or neighbours is much more effective than more formal, professionally led support. Frequent outpatient appointments where little happens are not cost-effective for the family often the father loses money as he must take time off work and the cost of travel with a difficult baby or toddler is high. Not all can benefit from discussion groups of parents and other mothers find a succession of home visits from a variety of professionals very disruptive. Religion, if it is already an important part of family life, has been shown to be important in maintaining family well being especially in immigrant groups, such as Hispanic people in the United States, and for Indian families, where Hinduism is central to family life and where children have specific roles to play, such as that of sons in parental funeral rites. A child with an abnormality makes many parents look again at their fundamental beliefs, but few make lasting changes. Other families find membership...

Nai Kong V Cheung Susan L Cohn

As reviewed in Chap. 18,a variety of acute and late complications from NB and its treatment may occur these include late effects of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. High-risk patients are at greatest risk because of the intensive multi-modality treatment strategies that are currently utilized. Reliable identification of the subset of patients currently classified as high risk who do not require intensive therapy would significantly decrease long-term morbidity and treatment-related mortality for these very young patients. For example, data from both the POG and CCG indicate that toddlers 12-18 months of age

Malnutrition syndromes of childhood

Food intolerance is defined as a reproducible adverse reaction to the ingestion of food or any of its components, i.e., proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and additives. Such adverse reactions include toxic, metabolic, and allergic reactions. Common forms of food intolerance include cow's milk allergy (CMA), lactose intolerance that causes carbohydrate malabsorption, and gluten-sensitive enteropathy (celiac disease). CMA and other food allergies of childhood are often transient more than 85 of children lose their sensitivity to most allergenic foods within the first 3-5 years of life. Most common allergenic foods in childhood include egg, cow's milk, wheat, and soy. In the case of infants and toddlers, milk and egg are important source

Fattal Valevsk 2001 On Micronutrient

6 Chatoor I, Surles J, Ganiban J, Beker L, Paez LM, Kerzner B (2004) Failure to thrive and cognitive development in toddlers with infantile anorexia. Pediatrics 113 e440-447 10 Carvalho NF, Kenney RD, Carrington PH, Hall DE (2001) Severe nutritional deficiencies in toddlers resulting from health food milk alternatives. Pediatrics 107 E46 88 Devaney B, Ziegler P, Pac S, Karwe V, Barr SI (2004) Nutrient intakes of infants and toddlers. J Am Diet Assoc 104 s14-21

Specific micronutrient deficiencies

Current studies suggest that vitamin E deficiency is common in US toddlers 88 . Vitamin E supplementation enhances proliferative response in vitro 89 and improves IL-2 cytokine response 90 . Vitamin E deficiency causes reduced transferrin receptor internalization in the mouse, which suggests restriction of intracellular iron stores that would be needed for cellular function and proliferation 91 . Vitamin E may influence T cell function by downmodulating PGE2. Improvement in eczema and reduction in serum levels of IgE in atopic subjects has recently been reported 92 . A recent study has shown that antioxidant deficiency is common in a very large cohort of CF patients. Carotenoid and vitamin E deficiencies were found to occur early in the course of the disease and antioxidants were observed to decrease with bronchial infection 93 .

Intentionality development and content

The approach proposed here is based simply on the methodological assumption that normal biopsychological function is persistent. And normal function has of course to do with detection of real danger, not imagined. The evolutionary hypothesis is that the anxiety system would not have been selected had it not served the function of detecting danger, but it makes no sense to interpret 'danger' in this context as things which really represent no threat at all. The search is for something which really matters to a human being of such-and-such a kind. If a toddler, for example, seems to get into something like a panic state when a toy is taken from him, it is plausible to suppose that the appropriate intensional description of the event is one which brings out its highly threatening nature for the child, so that it means to him is, e.g. the collapse of plans and the disintegration of action, or his powerlessness. A second choice hypothesis in this case is that the child's anxiety is...

Research in family therapy

In appraising the present state of adult family therapy research, the choice is to see the glass as either half full or half empty. We opt for the more optimistic scenario. We need to remind ourselves that adult psychiatry family therapy is a mere toddler, dating only from the I970s. During this time, immense strides have been made, particularly in the development of theoretical concepts. Pioneers in the field were chiefly therapists working with families and were tantalized by the nature of the process rather than its effectiveness. In hindsight, this makes sense. Models were completely lacking the 'how to' conduct treatment crying out for creative ideas. As can be seen in the theoretical part of the chapter, many have emerged, and continue to do so. The result is a rich array of therapeutic approaches including several comprehensive theoretical contributions.(42) The growth has occurred at a dizzy pace with an inevitable consequence of overload. How can we make sense of the many...

Holidays Coping with Change

Whether they are teenagers or toddlers, as I have already written, one common perception about autism is that autistic people do not like change. In some ways this is most definitely the case, although personally I don't think it is quite that simple - is anything to do with autism simple Ben has, for a long time, insisted on the same yellow cup, the same yellow spoon, the same bowl, the same bedtime routine.Mr Rigidity himself. If I am silly enough to do something more than once with him in the same way, then I have inadvertently imposed a routine on him (and the rest of us) never to be broken .until he decides otherwise. At four years old Ben, though non verbal, would insist that every ornament be in the same place yet didn't seem bothered one iota whether I had moved tables, chairs and sofas around. Now he has changed. The ornaments are commented on (with words now) but not worried about, yet any change of furniture would cause a spinning, flapping panic. For some reason known only...

Future Directions

Recently, some of the clinical criteria currently used in the risk-group schema have been questioned. For example, although 12 months has heretofore been a critical maker in defining stage 4S and in estimating risk for stage 4, recent data from a CCG study suggest that 12- to 18-month-old toddlers with non-MYCN-amplified stage 4 have estimated 6-year survival rates of > 85 when they are treated with intensive multi-modality therapy (Schmidt et al. 2003). Similarly, a report from the POG suggests that children 12-18 months of age with hyperdiploid, non-MYCN-amplified stage 4, have an estimated 4-year event-free survival rate of > 90 following intensive multi-modality therapy (George et al. 2003). These observations suggest that children 12-18 months of age with non-MYCN-amplified metastatic neuroblas-toma, traditionally considered at high risk for treatment failure, may in fact benefit from a reduction of currently prescribed intensive induction and consolidation therapeutic...

Diagnostic Studies

Initial evaluation should include a complete examination. This is particularly important in infants and toddlers where an objective history is not available. Although difficult to visualize in many cases, a glimpse of the optic disk can sometimes exclude significant raised intracranial pressure when it may be suspected based on the child's symptoms. A child presenting with intractable headaches, especially associated with persistent vomiting or a neurological deficit, should receive a screening imaging study, usually a computed tomography (CT) scan. While CT may not provide the required detail, a perfectly normal study will exclude the presence of hydrocephalus or a significant mass lesion. An abnormality on the CT study should prompt a more detailed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. It should be noted that vomiting and irritability and or headaches are exceedingly common in children, and it is impractical for all children to undergo imaging studies. In general, if there is a...

Separation and loss

Since attachment processes are so central to children's early social and emotional development, much attention has been given to the impact of separations from attachment figures. The effects of bereavement in childhood, and the implications of separations associated with adoption and with foster and residential care are examined in later chapters. Less permanent separations are undoubtedly distressing for children, but it is now known that their longer-term impact need not be severe, and depends on a variety factors. The age of the child, the quality of prior relationships, the way the separation is managed, and the quality of subsequent care all seem central to effects. Single hospital admissions, for example, are not generally associated with any increased risk for psychiatric disorder. Multiple admissions may be, especially if one of the separations occurred in the toddler period. This increased risk is more marked in discordant families, suggesting that effects are mediated...


Different sets of influences impinge as the individual grows up and shape the life-course. Many of these can accentuate problems. Thus a toddler with an irritable temperament and short attention span may not learn good social skills if he is raised in a family lacking them, and where he can only get his way by behaving antisocially and grasping for what he needs. At school he may fall in with a deviant crowd of peers, where violence and other antisocial acts are talked-up and give him a sense of esteem. His generally poor academic ability and difficult behaviour in class may lead him to truant increasingly, which in turn makes him fall further behind in education. He may then leave school with no qualifications and fail to find a job, and resort to drugs. To fund his drug habit he may resort to crime and, once convicted, find it even harder to get a job. From this example, it can be seen that adverse experiences do not only arise passively and independently of the young person's...


Small, But Serious Pediatric Ingestions. Quantity of ingested substance in most cases is proportional to severity of induced toxicity. When possible, calculation of milligram-per-kilogram dose of ingestion is helpful to prognosticate outcome. In toddlers, however, a small dose can be lethal. For examples, see Table I 21.

Parental influences

Especially in their early years, most children need their parents' help in coping with night-time separation from them and the potentially frightening experience of the dark or their own thoughts and fantasies. Infants need comfort from physical contact. Toddlers are helped by bedtime routines and transitional objects and encouragement to become 'self-soothing' so that they can fall asleep without their parents' presence and attention. Parents' ability to provide such help depends on their personality and sensitivity, their personal circumstances and mental state, and also their cognitions about their child's sleep based partly on their own experiences in childhood.(6) Hopefully, older children and adolescents become increasingly independent.


Tanguay,(3,9,) Dosen,(40) and Gaedt and Gartner(41) have applied the developmental approach to the understanding of the symptoms of psychopathology and to the psychiatric diagnostics of the mentally retarded. These authors based their approach on Piaget's stages of cognitive development as well as on Mahler's and Bowlby's models of psychosocial development. Parallels could be drawn between the symptoms of psychopathology of non-retarded children at a particular chronological age and mentally retarded individuals at the same developmental age which indicates that the developmental level may specifically affect the exterior features of mental illness. According to these authors, although developmentally disabled adults who suffer from mental illness resemble other adults in many ways, it is the developmental level and consequent differentiation of psychosocial life (e.g. affect differentiation, personality structuring, moral development) which may be decisive for the symptoms linked to...

Defining wart types

Warzentypen Bilder

Flat warts are flesh- to tan-colored papules, which are smaller and smoother than common warts, usually 2-4 mm in size. These lesions are common on the face and neck. Flat warts may be spread by shaving (Koebner phenomenon) in adolescents, causing a linear appearance. Flat warts are also seen in the genetic immunodeficiency syndrome, epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EDV). In EDV, warts spread rapidly, and may progress to bowenoid papulosis or Bowen's disease (squamous cell carcinoma in situ). Such malignant conversion has been reported in children as young as toddler age both with and without immunodeficiency 21, 22 .


Age at onset of symptoms Consider congenital anomalies, obstruction, or chronic diseases if constipation has been present since infancy. Functional constipation starts in toddler or preschool years. F. Difficulties with toilet training Coercive training or resistance may lead toddlers to withhold stool, starting a recurrent cycle of functional constipation.

Frequent Symptoms

Presenting signs and symptoms of children with neu-roblastoma reflect both the location of the primary tumor and the extent of disease. The typical patient with neuroblastoma is an infant or a toddler. Pain from abdominal distension or metastases to bone is common (30 ). Many patients fail to gain weight or have weight loss (11 ). The characteristic bilater


Chronic Nonspecific Diarrhea (Toddler's Diarrhea). Typically occurs in children aged 1-3 years. Children appear healthy and continue to grow and develop normally. Excessive fluid intake and an unbalanced diet that consists mostly of low-residue, high-carbohydrate, and low-fat foods may play a role. G. Encopresis or Fecal Impaction. In the toddler or older child, encopresis often presents as diarrhea and is almost always caused by severe constipation. Any apparently healthy child who has a history of uncontrollable diarrhea should be evaluated for constipation or encopresis.


Egd Children Antrum Pictures

And has not been on a PPI for at least 2 weeks. The patient should not have taken antibiotics for 4 weeks prior to testing because this can reduce the H. pylori load. The use of an acid solution as part of the test solution, either citric acid or orange or apple juice, is ideal because urea activity is highest in an acid environment. Expired breath can be collected between 15 and 45 min depending on the laboratory. Despite the variability in the dosage of urea used and the different cut off points, this study consistently shows that the urea breath test has a sensitivity of over the 96 and a specificity of over 90 68 . Infants and toddlers are much more likely to have a positive result in comparison to school-age children and adolescents 69 . Reducing the tracer dose and changing the DOB value increase the specificity of this test in younger children 70, 71 . Also, technically, it is much more difficult to collect reliable expired air from infants and toddlers compared to school age...

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