The most widely used male sex hormone receptor antagonist in the treatment of experimental trauma is flutamide. Flutamide blocks receptors of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and 3a-androstenediol (Chaudry et al., 2003). Flutamide is a nonsteroidal agent and is known to inhibit androgen uptake or nuclear binding of the activated androgen receptor to nuclear response elements in the nucleus (Kolvenbag and Nash, 1999; Chaudry et al., 2003). It is used clinically for the treatment of androgen-sensitive pro-static carcinoma. Animal studies have shown that treatment of animals with flutamide is effective in preventing the deleterious effects of hemorrhagic shock on cell-mediated immunity, as well as in preventing the cardiovascular and hepatocellular depression (Angele et al., 1997; Angele et al., 1998a, 2000, 2001; Yokoyama et al., 2002; Chaudry et al., 2003). Another common antiandrogenic compound is bicalutamide (AstraZeneca Chicago, IL). Bicalutamide, similar to flutamide, is a nonsteroidal and shares flutamide in its mechanism of action (Furr, 1996; Kolvenbag and Nash, 1999; Angele et al., 2000; Chaudry et al., 2003). It competitively inhibits the binding of androgen to its cytosolic receptor in target tissues and is used clinically in the treatment of prostate cancer.
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