The Early Environment and Maternal Behavior in Rodents

The early postnatal period of life is an exceptionally sensitive time in which the nervous system as well as hormonal and immunological regulatory systems develop and mature within the interaction of the individual and its environment. Early severe stress or disturbance of the postnatal environment produces a cascade of neurobiological modifications that have the potential to cause enduring changes in brain development, physiology, and behavior (Anisman et al., 1998 Pryce and Feldon, 2003)....

Summary and Significance of Research Findings

Chronic restraint stress was shown to increase GCs levels, increase signs of sickness behavior, increase viral titers in the CNS, and increase mortality after infection with TMEV (Campbell et al., 2001). Restraint stress signifi cantly decreased several immune measures including NK cell activity (Welsh et al., 2004), chemokine (Mi et al., 2004) and cytokine expression in the spleen and CNS (Mi et al., 2006b). Reduced chemokine expression may account for the decreased inflammatory cell...

References

Viral persistence and immune memory. Semin. Virol. 5 319-324. Anglen, C.S.,Truckenmiller, M.E., Schell,T.D., and Bonneau, R.H. (2003).The dual role of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the development of stress-induced herpes simplex virus encephalitis. J. Neuroimmunol. 140 13-27. Ashley, R., Wald, A., and Corey, L. (1994). Cervical antibodies in patients with oral herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection Local anamnestic responses after genital HSV-2 infection. J. Virol. 68...

Restraint Stress Suppresses the Immune Response to Infection with Influenza Virus

Stress-induced Effects on Innate Immune Responses to Infection with Influenza Virus 3.1.1.1. Stress Effects on Inflammation In the initial studies of stress and the immune response, a murine model of influenza viral infection was initiated by intranasal challenge of C57BL 6 male mice physical restraint (RST) was selected as the stressor (Sheridan et al., 1991). Our first observations showed that RST reduced the accumulation of cells in the lungs of influenza-infected mice (Hunzeker et...

Stress and the Immune Response to Influenza Virus

The idea that psychological stress may cause measurable changes in an individual's susceptibility to infectious disease is not new. One of the earliest proposals was put forth by Ishigami (1919) in which he described the influence of psychic acts on the progress of pulmonary tuberculosis. Now, it is generally acknowledged that humans and animals exposed to chronic psychological or physical stressors have decreased resistance to microbial pathogens. The consequences of stress-induced modulation...

The Impact of Stress on HSV Reactivation and Recurrent HSV Infection

In all but a few cases, a primary infection with HSV resolves within a few weeks and without any long-term consequences. However, the ability of HSV to establish itself in a latent state and to reactivate periodically during the lifetime of the host and cause recurrent lesions is a significant challenge to the development of therapeutic strategies against HSV. There has long been evidence that acute and chronic psychosocial stress can trigger recurrences of both oral and genital infections....

Social Disruption Stress Glucocorticoid Resistance and the Immune Response to an Influenza Viral Infection 321 Social

There are multiple variables that contribute to the stress response. One of the most important is the nature of the stressor. In recent studies, we have employed a social conflict paradigm to investigate how aggressive social interactions, the repeated experience of defeat, and social hierarchy influence the immune response (Avitsur et al., 2001 Stark et al., 2001). Disruption of a social hierarchy that is established when male mice are caged together is a well-recognized model for social...

Innate Immune Responses to Influenza Virus Inflammation

Whereas TLRs can mediate pathogen recognition and initiate an antiviral response in the tissue parenchyma, recruitment of cells (i.e., inflammation) is necessary for the development of effective innate host defenses and the subsequent development of adaptive immunity. In addition to driving the transcription of the type I interferons, ligation of the Toll-like receptors also stimulates an inflammatory response (Diebold et al., 2004 Pasare and Medzhitov, 2004).The inflammatory response is...

Brief Review of MS Pathology and Pathogenesis

There are two distinct clinical disease markers in MS exacerbation and progression. Exacerbation is defined as a sudden onset or increase in a symptom within 24 h, which resolves fully or partially over the course of weeks or months. Progression refers to a steady worsening in the absence of exacerbations. Approximately 80 of patients begin with a relapsing-remitting (RR) course that is characterized by periodic exacerbations but no progression between exacerbations (Noseworthy et al., 2000)....

Stress Resolution Hypothesis

This hypothesis suggests that it is the resolution of the stress rather than the onset of stress that facilitates the development of active inflammation during this prodromal period. Whereas chronic stress is commonly marked by increased levels of cortisol (McEwen, 1998), trials of stress-management programs have reported that cortisol decreases as a result of successful stress management intervention (Antoni et al., 2000). MS patients with relapsing disease also often show evidence of low...

Use of Inhibitors of Sex Steroid Synthesis

5a-Reductase is an attractive target for the modulation of sex hormone synthesis. In this regard, studies have shown that treatment of animals with 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OHA), a potent inhibitor of 5a-reductase activity, attenuated alterations in cytokine production after trauma-hemorrhage (Schneider et al., 2003). Other 5a-reductase inhibitors that can be used are 4-azasteroids, 6-azasteroids, and 10-azasteroids (Flores et al., 2003 Occhiato et al., 2004). Finasteride is among the first...