Urban Survival Secrets for Terrorist Attacks

Urban Survival Guide

Discover How You Can Easily Have A Survival Plan Staying Right Where You Currently Live That's Better Than Having. A Fully Stocked Rural Retreat That You Can't Get To! Finally Revealed: Urban Survival Secrets For Surviving Terrorist Attacks, Natural Disasters And Pandemics! In The Real World, Most People Don't Have A Fully Stocked Retreat They Can Escape To. Even If You've Planned Ahead And You Do, There's No Guarantee That You'll Leave In Time Or That You'll Be Able To Make It There. Your First Plan Must Be To Survive In Place. Read more here...

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Author: David Morris
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Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the author was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

This book served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

Defining The Microbial Forensics Program

Ous weapons because bioweapons can be grown from a single organism or cell thus creation of large quantities can be accomplished readily and at low cost, starting with minimal amounts of starting material. Thus, even the smallest amounts of pathogens can be used to perpetrate a major terrorist event or biocrime. Furthermore, it can be difficult if not impossible to determine whether very small amounts of such materials have been removed surreptitiously from a facility that is authorized to possess pathogens. Most importantly, a biological weapon can be easy to conceal and, depending on the target, easy to disseminate. We must accept that it is impossible to guarantee that the government can deter or prevent all bioterrorist or criminal acts. Therefore, a proactive approach must be taken. In addition to the physical security measures being enacted, science can be effective as a deterrent and for identifying perpetrators. One major scientific approach to improve investigative...

Microbial Forensic Tools

As stated above, forensic investigations use all types of physical evidence to attempt to obtain information on the organism, the persons involved, the places involved, the processes used to develop or disperse the weapon, the instrumentation used, and or the time of the criminal act. Other materials and methodologies may assist in an investigation of a bioterrorism event, and at times may be more informative than DNA-based tests. Traditional physical evidence collected at a crime scene will also be evaluated. In addition, a recent report by the American Academy of Microbiology34 described a number of non-DNA-based approaches to consider for the microbial forensic panoply of assays. These include

Engineering Novel Viruses Before and After Recombinant DNA

Typically, recombinant DNA manipulations of viruses begin with viral nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) that is then cloned and amplified in bacteria using plasmid vectors or in vitro using PCR. Once the genome sequence of a virus is known, however, it becomes possible to create this sequence artificially using overlapping synthetic oligonucleotides and gene synthesis techniques that have been available for many years. An example of this, which received a great deal of attention from the media and the scientific community, was recently published for an attenuated form of poliovirus.53 While the poliovirus case came as no surprise to virologists and molecular biologists, it did bring several issues to the forefront. If an infectious virus can be created by synthetic methods, can it ever really be eradicated In light of potential bioterrorist or biowarfare agents, should there be a restriction on making the genome sequence available in public databases Should research on these agents be banned,...

Signature sequence identificationpathogen identification

The concept has been successfully reduced to practice for 16S rDNA signature sequence-based identification of environmental Bordetella strains (von Wintzingerode et al, 2002 Hartmer et al, 2003) and of Mycobacteria (Lefmann et al., 2004) with 24 isolates unequivocally identified in the study. These experiments serve as a general model for microbial or viral genotypic fingerprints that can be utilized to differentiate between samples and extract corresponding best-matching reference sequences from reference databases. The advantage MALDI-TOF MS offers in this respect is the speed of analysis, the degree of automation and the opportunity for standardization. All of these are important attributes required to cope with new threats from infectious microorganisms, such as agents of bioterrorism, emerging pathogens and their resistance to antibiotic treatment, and also to allow high-level quality control of pharmaceutical products.

Bacterial Pathogens Of Concern

Many different bacterial pathogens can and have been employed in biocrimes. It is difficult to predict which pathogens will be used in the future, although availability, ease of handling, ease of weaponization, and potential impact (death or terror) are factors that might narrow the options.3 Traditionally bioterrorism defense priorities and pathogen-target lists have been greatly influenced by bacterial agents that were part of state-sponsored'' bioweapons programs. Thus, Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Francisella tularensis (tularemia), Burkholderia sp. (glanders and melioidosis), and Brucella sp. (brucellosis) are often cited as possible bioterrorism agents. The 2001 anthrax letter attacks demonstrated that this is a very relevant list of potential biocrime agents. However, other commonly available pathogens must also be considered. In the U.S., two notable biocrimes used the food-borne pathogens Shigella and Salmonella. The very common occurrence of these...

Detection and quantification of nonhuman species

Real-time quantitative PCR is also a rapid and highly sensitive methodological tool for detection, identification and individualization of microbial agents that could be used in bioterrorist acts. For instance, real-time PCR assays are routinely used to detect the presence of DNA from Bacillus anthracis in environmental samples by using both unique plasmid-borne and chromosomal genes (Jones et al., 2005). Other highly sensitive real-time PCR assays for the detection of potential bioterrorism agents such as Yersinia Pestis, Francisella tularensis, Brucella spp. and Burkholderia spp. have also been developed (see a review of the assays for biodefence used at the USA Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Jones et al., 2005).

Forensic Case Examples

To better plan for forensic investigation strategies of an event, capitalizing on past experiences can shed light on current practices and the direction of future research. Two illustrative examples, neither of them bioterrorism acts, are the Sverdlovsk anthrax incident and the case of a dentist with AIDS who may have infected patients with HIV Both required epidemiological investigation and molecular biology to resolve.

Keim P. Microbial Forensics A Scientific Assessment. A Report From American Academy Of Microbiology. Washington Dc 2002

Bioterrorism From threat to reality. Ann Rev Microbiol 2002 56 167-185. 10. Carus SW. Bioterrorism and Biocrimes The Illicit Use of Biological Agents Since 1900. The Netherlands Fredonia Books 2000. 15. National Research Council. Making the Nation Safer. The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC The National Academy Press 2002. 17. National Research Council. Countering Agricultural Bioterrorism. Washington, DC The National Academy Press 2002. 25. Arnon SS, Schechter R, Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, Fine AD, Hayer J, Layton M, Lillibridge S, Osterholm MT, O'Toole T, Parker G, Perl TM, Russell PK, Swerdlow DL, Tonat K. Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon. In Henderson DA, Inglesby TV, O'Toole T (eds). Bioterrorism-Guidelines for Medical and Public Health Management. Chicago American Medical Association Press 2002 141-165. 34. Budowle B, Schutzer SE, Einseln A, Kelley LC, Walsh AC, Smith JAL, Marrone BL,...

Conducting Interviews

Other differences between telephone and personal interviews are, surprisingly, modest55. In a biological terrorism event, cooperation in a telephone interview may be complicated by fear, as respondents tend to be more suspicious of the interviewer or the legitimacy of the study when face-to-face contact is lacking.

Equipment Or Potential Means Of Delivery

However, many biological crimes and terrorist attacks have been conducted with a much smaller footprint than that of a state-sponsored biological weapons program. The Rajneesh attack on a salad bar, which sickened more than 600 people,16 and the Shigella contamination of muffins17 required only a small clinical incubator. The New Zealand rabbit calicivirus epidemic that began with a bloodstained handkerchief, and started an epidemic that killed millions of wild rabbits required only a kitchen blender and one infected liver. Lack of conventional production capabilities should not rule out a possible intentional event.

Resistance to Chloramphenicol

Chromosomal mutants usually have altered ribosomes that no longer bind the antibiotic. Not surprisingly such mutations often cause slower or less accurate protein synthesis and the cells grow poorly. In contrast, plasmid-borne resistance to these antibiotics usually involves chemical attack on the antibiotic itself by specific enzymes encoded by the plasmid.

Future Challenges

Maintaining Vigilance Against Bioterrorism potent biological weapons. Experts in the field of bioterrorism list four diseases anthrax, botulism, plague, and smallpox as the greatest threats. While it is hoped that a biological weapons attack will never occur again, it is crucial to be prepared for the possibility. Prompt recognition of such an event, followed by rapid and appropriate isolation and treatment procedures, can help to minimize the consequences. The CDC, in cooperation with the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), has prepared a bioterrorism readiness plan to be used as a template by health care facilities. Many of the recommendations are based on the Standard Precautions already employed by hospitals to prevent the spread of infectious agents (see Perspective 20.1). Some of the most relevant characteristics of the diseases that are the most likely candidates for biological weapons include Anthrax. This was the agent used in the...

Advanced Concepts

Biological safety is an important concern for clinical microbiology. Because various collection, transport, and extraction systems inactivate organisms at different times, the technologist should follow recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that call for universal precautions, treating all specimens as if they were infectious throughout the extraction process. Updated guidelines are available from the CDC for the handling of suspected bioterrorism material for example, the anthrax spores discovered in the United States Postal System in 2001. Organisms such as smallpox must be handled only in approved (level 4 containment) laboratories. Molecular testing has eased the requirements for preserving the viability of organisms for laboratory culture. This should improve safety levels as methods are devised that replace growing cultures.

Storage of Affinity Columns

Affinity columns will last virtually indefinitely, provided they are protected from drying, microbial contamination, proteolysis, chemical attack and accumulation of extraneous insoluble material. These requirements are not difficult to meet. Columns should be stored in a neutral or slightly acidic

Grid Activities In Asia And Japan

Other international grid projects in the area of drug discovery include the UD Patriot Grid projects, which are a family of grids to identify new drugs for diseases that are known to have potential for bioterrorism. The purpose is to create defensive capabilities to accelerate the drug discovery process by using the VHTS techniques

Validation Of Laboratory Tests

When previously validated test procedures are modified, revalidation of the procedures is necessary (particularly for material modifications). Use of a tentatively validated, newly developed assay should be acceptable provided it was developed to investigate a biocrime or bioterrorism event which may be necessary in an urgent manner or where a rapid analysis is needed. If such test results will be presented during courtroom testimony, test validation should be completed beforehand, or a panel of experts should be convened to confirm the validity of the procedure and determine the limitations of the results.

Traumatic Brain Injury TBI

Unexpected crises have set the rhythm of our days after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the dismemberment of the Soviet Union and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact. In a world that still needs to find a clear path to be open toward the future and to think about the new and the possible, as recently stated by philosopher Bodei (2006), we have unfortunately witnessed the events of September 11, 2001 in New York, March 11, 2004 in Madrid, July 19, 2005 in London and a series of armed conflicts, from Kosovo to Sudan, from East Timor to Afghanistan, Iraq, and the Middle East. All these changes in the world political climate have brought an increase in the incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI) both in soldiers and in civilians from war zones and terrorist attacks.

Efforts to Improve the Diagnosis and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) became part of our lexicon in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, but the symptoms and associated functional impairment it represents have been known for centuries. Perhaps Cain was the first to suffer the torment of this disorder, and Homer certainly depicts its symptoms in his account of Achilles in The Iliad. More recently, the medical literature has featured hundreds of accounts from the American Civil War, both World Wars, and other national and international conflicts. Authors identify myriad physical and psychological symptoms that escape efforts to ascribe them to specific environmental factors, but are linked to the stress of war. PTSD is also well documented in many victims of terrorism, genocide and personal assaults such as rape. An estimated 10,000 Croatian Homeland War veterans (15 prevalence) have PTSD, with an alarmingly high suicide rate. The current conflict in Iraq, involving snipers and suicide bombings, as 14 Galea S, Ahern J,...

Viral Forensics the Schmidt Case

Though not a panacea, phylogenetic analyses will prove useful in a range of forensic investigations. As with other molecular forensic approaches they can be particularly effective in demonstrating the innocence of accused individuals. They can be also be useful in tracing sources for any transfer of infectious materials whether viral, bacterial, or protozoan, involving accidental contamination or intentional infection in personal crimes or acts of terrorism. However, these applications are potentially limited by rates of sequence change, which must be sufficiently fast to provide a record of phylogenetic relatedness, but slow enough to preserve sufficient phylogenetic signal, prior to its being overwritten with multiple substitutions at individual sites. Application of phylogenetic analyses can also be complicated by the propensity of some viruses to recombine.

Rabbit Fever Tularemia

Lymfonodes Rabbit

Tularemia is widespread among wild animals in the United States, involving species as diverse as rabbits, muskrats, and bobcats. Many human cases are acquired when people are skinning animals that appear to be free of disease. The causative organism enters through unnoticed scratches or by penetration of a mucous membrane. The disease can also be acquired from the bites of flies and ticks and by inhalation of the causative organism. It is potentially a disease transmitted by bioterrorism.

Bacteria that Form a Resting Stage

Cyst Forming Azospirillum

Bacillus and Clostridium species are common Gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria that form endospores the position of the spore in the cell can be used as an aid in identification (figure 11.16). Clostridium species, which are obligate anaerobes, were discussed earlier. Bacillus species may be either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes, and many have notable characteristics. A suspension of endospores of B. stearothermophilus, a ther-mophilic species, is used as a biological indicator in quality control procedures to ensure that an autoclave is working properly. Bacillus anthracis causes the disease anthrax, which can be acquired from contacting its endospores in soil or in animal hides or wool. Unfortunately, the spores can also be used as an agent in bioterrorism. Once inhaled, the spores germinate and cause disease. Likewise, spores that enter through breaks in the

An Overview Of Microbial Diagnostics

Subsequent to the 2001 anthrax attacks, increased distinctions have been drawn between detection diagnostics, which attempt to indicate the presence of specific pathogens at a broad level (family, genus, or species), and forensic diagnostics that resolve individual strains or isolates. Our discussion will focus on detection and forensic diagnostics from the viewpoint of detecting and analyzing bioterrorism incidents. While these techniques have obvious additional applications in clinical health, agriculture, and food safety, we will not address these areas in detail. It is useful to examine the impact of economics on the use of microbial diagnostics. Detection diagnostics are employed to provide wide-area protection against the possibility of a pathogen release, in the case of bioterrorism, or to monitor the spread of a natural pathogen (e.g., West Nile virus). Depending on the circumstances of the surveillance and the probability of encountering the pathogen, species-level...

Use of optical maps for microbial identification and infectious disease diagnosis

The presence and replication of a pathogen in a certain host may or may not cause disease, depending on the host defense system as well as the antigenic capacity of the microbe. This antigenic capacity is largely determined by genes that code for cell-surface epitopes and secreted toxins. Because these genes are under such strong selective pressure, a wide range of genetic variants has emerged over the years. The ability to rapidly detect and discern these variants, combined with a detailed knowledge of toxicity and host-survival implications will have a lasting affect on both the medical and anti-bioterrorism communities. Clinicians can currently isolate and culture a wide range of infectious microbes from patients. However, if this practice is coupled with rapid tests to identify highly and or uniquely pathogenic sub-strains, then appropriate treatment regimes can be prescribed earlier, reducing the risk of sepsis and widespread infection. The optical mapping system can serve as an...

Cavtat June 1316 2005

In June, 2005, in the town of Cavtat on the Adriatic coast of Croatia, we brought together many of the leading researchers in the use of VR therapy in psychological disorders. The purpose of this NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) was to give these groundbreaking researchers an opportunity to share their experiences and expertise, to achieve consensus on the best methods for incorporating VR in the treatment of veterans of war and terrorism, and to foster multinational collaborative studies in this regard. To achieve this, invited experts shared the most salient findings of recent research with which they have been involved. We then divided all workshop participants into working groups to focus on four key elements of the challenges faced in utilizing VR and other new technologies in the treatment of PTSD

The World of the Microorganism

Microorganisms are a key component of biological warfare along with chemicals that disrupt homeostasis. The anthrax attack that followed the 9 11 terrorist attacks clearly illustrated how a dusting of anthrax in an envelope can be lethal to people in an office building. Anthrax is a disease caused by the microorganism Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that forms endospores and infiltrates Fortunately, incidents of biological attacks using microorganisms have been infrequent. However, there are thousands of microorganisms all around us that can be just as deadly and debilitating as the microorganisms used in warfare throughout history.

Antibacterial Spectrum and Resistance

With the exception of the first generation, the quinolones are active against a variety of pathogens associated with respiratory tract infections, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneu-mophila, and Mycobacterialspp., although these drugs are not FDA-approved for the latter. Recently, ciprofloxacin has gained popular attention in providing coverage for Bacillus anthracis, a major bioterrorism agent.

Investigation of Suspicious Disease Outbreaks

Most of the terrorism experienced globally has involved highly localized attacks with explosives or toxic chemicals that produce mass casualties at the time of the event or soon after. Such incidents are obvious, and the extent of the damage can be readily and immediately perceived. This chapter is dedicated to investigation of covert attacks with biological weapons, in which signs and symptoms of clinical illness are usually delayed so that the scope of the problem grows over hours and days. Without physical evidence of an attack or a credible announcement, the deliberate nature of the incident may not be suspected or discovered for some time, if ever. Given the heightened national state of alert currently, almost all outbreaks of disease, regardless of size, should be evaluated considering the possibility of bioterrorism or agroterrorism. In many cases, a rapid, well conducted etiologic and epidemiologic investigation paired with an analysis of the distribution and number of...

Novel Approaches To The Diagnosis And Treatment Of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Meetings supported by the NATO STS Programme are in security-related priority areas of Defence Against Terrorism or Countering Other Threats to Security. The types of meeting supported are generally Advanced Study Institutes and Advanced Research Workshops. The NATO STS Series collects together the results of these meetings. The meetings are co-organized by scientists from NATO countries and scientists from NATO's Partner or Mediterranean Dialogue countries. The observations and recommendations made at the meetings, as well as the contents of the volumes in the Series, reflect those of participants and contributors only they should not necessarily be regarded as reflecting NATO views or policy.

Concerns Regarding DNA Technologies

Advent of any new technology should bring scrutiny over the safety and efficacy of the procedures. When recombinant DNA technologies first allowed the cloning of genes over two decades ago, controversies swirled about their use and possible abuse. Even the scientists who developed the technologies were concerned about potential dangers in gene cloning. In response, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) formed the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) to develop a set of guidelines for conducting research that involved recombinant DNA techniques and gene cloning. Today, we are enjoying the fruits of many of those technologies, as evidenced by the list of commercially available products in table 9.2. Despite the fact that the technologies can be used to produce life-saving products, however, there can never be a guarantee that the same techniques will not be used for malicious purposes. Today, the idea that superbugs'' are being created for the purpose of bioterrorism is a...

Case Study Of Bacillus Anthracis

Microbial Forensics

In this section, we will present some quantitative considerations related to microbial forensics. We will use published research on Bacillus anthracis to illustrate several important issues. We do so because the anthrax terrorist attacks of October 2001 have received considerable attention and, thus, offer concrete data for discussion. However, we will gloss over certain complications of this particular example in order to emphasize more general issues that would probably apply to similar cases in the future.

Epidemiologic Investigation for Public Health Biodefense and Forensic Microbiology

Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Microorganisms are very efficient at infecting humans, using a number of different strategies and mechanisms. The deliberate dissemination of a biological agent by many of these same mechanisms presents the latest challenge to public health. The deliberate dissemination will often be obvious however, identifying the covert dissemination of a biological may present challenges. Nonetheless, a thorough investigation integrating epidemiologic data and molecular typing will help to differentiate between a naturally occurring disease outbreak and one resulting from an act of terrorism.

Preliminary Attempts To Find A Geneprotein Relationship

As early as 1936, it became apparent to the Mendelian geneticists that future experiments of the sort successful in elucidating the basic features of Mendelian genetics were unlikely to yield productive evidence about how genes act, Instead, it would be necessary to find biological objects more suitable for chemical analysis. They were aware, moreover, that contemporary knowledge of nucleic acid and protein chemistry was completely inadequate for a fundamental chemical attack on even the most suitable biological systems. Fortunately, however, the limitations in chemistry did not deter them from Iteming how to do genetic experiments with chemically simple molds, bacteria, and viruses. As we shall see, the necessary chemical farts became available almost as soon as the geneticists were ready to use them.

Botulinum Neurotoxin And Botulism

Naturally occurring botulism can result from ingestion of preformed toxin (food botulism) or from toxin produced in situ due to wound infection (wound botulism) or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract (infant or intestinal botulism). Botulism can also occur in exposed laboratory workers or from an overdose of therapeutic neurotoxin. In addition, the botulinum neurotoxins are classified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) as one of the six highest-risk threat agents for bioterrorism, due to their extreme potency and lethality, ease of production and transport, and victims' need for prolonged intensive care.7 Intoxication can occur via oral ingestion of toxin or inhalation of aerosolized toxin.11,12 While only four of the neurotoxin serotypes cause natural human disease, aerosolized neurotoxin serotypes C, D, and G produce botulism in primates by the inhalation route,11 and would most likely also affect humans. Thus it is likely that any one of the seven neurotoxin serotypes

The Threat

Terrorism can be defined as an attack or threat of an attack on the innocent to create fear, intimidate, inflict harm, and or affect economic well-being. These acts have often been politically motivated, but may not always be so. To create terror, perpetrators of bioterrorism use pathogens or toxins as weapons. A number of bacteria, viruses, and fungi pose serious health risks to humans, animals, and plants, and the use of them as bioweapons can have serious consequences on human health, economic development, social stability, and political activities of nations worldwide. Moreover, technology has developed to such a point that there is a greater potential and increased likelihood that biological weapons will be accessible to individuals or small groups of individuals instead of just state organized institutions. Sophisticated high technology, such as that used for nuclear weapon development, is not needed to produce large quantities of weaponizable pathogens, and large quantities of...

Education

One of the best ways to combat a bioterrorism event (or any disease outbreak) is by having an involved and educated public. Surveillance by those who recognize a disease (particularly a rarely occurring one) can help reduce the effects of the disease. Furthermore, proper understanding of and response to an event can reduce public fear, minimize economic impact, and halt the paralyzing effect that some terrorists attempt to inflict. However, the public may not be educated sufficiently to serve in this capacity. The following example of the state-of-understanding of a potential health risk and bioterrorism act demonstrates the need for better education tools and strategies. While not a direct action of a microbial forensics program, the above described state of affairs of the public's understanding points to a need for better education. Smallpox has been presented substantially in the news, yet the public knows little about it. Increased preparedness and planning will enable early...

Intrinsic Structure

Like graphite, CNT tend to aggregate to maximize contact between graphitic layers, and this is particularly the case for SWCNT. The resultant bundling contributes to the insolubility of CNT. CNT are seen as strongly resistant to chemical attack they will burn in air at temperatures 500 C

Swgmgf

Since the first two components that the national microbial forensic laboratory will rely upon are addressed in other chapters, the focus here will be on the SWGMGF. The newly formed SWGMGF is hosted by the FBI and has a membership drawn from a wide range of federal agencies, as well as academia. Input from the private sector will be sought on a routine basis. As mentioned above, the SWGMGF is modeled after the successful practices in the human DNA forensic arena (i.e., SWGDAM)30 which utilizes peer consensus to identify and define the criteria on various topics, address technical issues, and set performance guidelines. The Scientific Working Group's success is based on bringing together experienced individuals and organizations (that routinely do not have the opportunity to share and exchange ideas) to foster high-quality, integrated interactions so that challenges related to bioterrorism and biocrimes can be rapidly and effectively addressed. The goals of the SWGMGF are to provide...

Antioxidant Defence

However, ever since the production of an oxygen-rich atmosphere early in biological evolution, living organisms have of necessity developed protective systems to combat the powerful damaging effects of oxidation. Peroxides (hydrogen peroxide, alkyl hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite) and oxygen- and nitrogen-centred radicals derived there from (ROS or NOS, respectively) have the potential to chemically damage carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Being a kind of unavoidable hazard in aerobic life, ROS and NOS are further misused to build up the armamentarium of the steady battle between pathogenic micro-organisms and their victims. In this context, the formation of the superoxide radical is often complicated by generation of NO and lipid hydroperoxides by NO synthases and lipoxygenases, respectively. Inevitably, this scenario affords efficient systems of self-protection and defence against the chemical attack from outside. The required efficiency is best achieved by...

Discussion

The applications enabled by this new sequencing technology and its usefulness to the drug discovery and development process are only beginning to be discovered. Once the technology is widely available and its power is known, additional applications will be developed. The ability to sequence de novo opens up a wide array of possibilities for new discovery and creative approaches to important and unaddressed problems in many areas of research and development. In the public health arena, 454 sequencing can be applied to the worldwide tracking and monitoring of the spread of specific strains of pathogenic microorganisms. In bio-defense, one can envision the rapid identification of the strain of an isolated suspected bioterrorism agent, or the identification of pathogens by sequencing complex mixtures. Sequencing the complete or partial genomes of large populations of individuals will impact our understanding of the genetic basis of human diseases. In cancer biology, rapid and inexpensive...

Anthracis Analysis

Following the bioterrorism attacks in the U.S. in October 2001, in which multiple samples of Bacillus anthracis spores were sent through the mail to a variety of targets, TIGR was asked to sequence and analyze the strain of anthrax bacterium used in these attacks. The goals of the analysis were threefold (1) to determine whether the anthrax had been genetically engineered in any way, (2) to discover any and all differences between the attack strain and known strains, and (3) to create a unique genetic signature that could be used to characterize the attack strain. Shortly after the attacks occurred, VNTR analysis showed that the strain used in the attacks was Ames, a strain originally isolated from a cow in Texas in 1981. This strain had been sent to the U.S. Army biodefense laboratory in Ft. Detrick, Maryland at that time, and subsequently distributed to multiple labs around the world engaged in anthrax research. Using all known anthrax VNTR markers, the samples were...

Final Remarks

And study of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of infectious diseases. The availability of complete genome sequences of large numbers of pathogenic microorganisms will provide a better understanding of their evolutionary genetics, virulence, and host interactions. Microbial and host gene expression profiles have been used to develop tools that allow faster and more precise diagnosis and individually tailored treatment regimens and outcome prediction. In the future, there will be a need for more rapid diagnosis, increased standardization of testing, and greater adaptability to cope with new threats from infectious microorganisms, such as agents of bioterrorism and emerging pathogens. The combination of the new tools that are now being developed in research laboratories and improved communication between physicians and clinical microbiologists should lead to intense changes in the way that clinical microbiologists work.

Definitions

Biocrime or bioterrorism is the threat or use of microorganisms, toxins, pests, prions, or their associated ancillary products to commit acts of crime or terror. Preliminary validation is the acquisition of limited test data to enable an evaluation of a method used to assess materials derived from a biocrime or bioterrorism event.

Validation

Preliminary Validation Is the Acquisition of Limited Test Data to Enable an Evaluation of a Method Used to Provide Investigative Support to Investigate a Biocrime or Bioterrorism Event. If the Results Are to Be Used for Other Than Investigative Support, Then a Panel of Peer Experts, External to the Laboratory, Should Be Convened to Assess the Utility of the Method and to Define the Limits of Interpretation and Conclusions Drawn

Vrmc

Chemical Signals Lizards

VR has proven an effective method of exposure for those suffering from PTSD, whether it is due to a MVA, natural disaster, terrorism, or war-related trauma. Often in PTSD treatment it is not practical or advisable to re-expose the patient to the trauma in a real-world setting. VR, however, can effectively place the patient back into that scenario so that the necessary processing of memories can occur, allowing the individual to move through the trauma and on to recovery.

Background

Terrorist events, natural and man-made disasters, and intra- and international conflicts over the past 10-15 years have led to increased attention to the prevalence and adverse health consequences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD has an estimated 2-5 point prevalence and 8-12 lifetime prevalence in the general population, with higher rates in primary care settings, and even more so in combat veterans 1-9 . It is especially common after terrorism and natural disasters for example, 60 of those who sought care after terrorist sarin release still met PTSD criteria 6 months later 10 , as did 41 of victims of a terrorist bombing in a Paris subway 11 . Likewise, 43 of earthquake survivors in Turkey were diagnosed with PTSD 12 . With 24-hour television news coverage, such events impact an entire society after the terrorist attacks in the U.S. on September 11, 2001, one in six adults nationwide had persistent distress 2 months later, and this was associated with poorer function at...

Safety issues

The Centers for Disease Control Laboratory Response Network to Bioterrorism (LRN) recommends that samples to be analyzed for biological threat agents be processed within a certified Class II biological safety cabinet (BSC). Most diagnostic procedures deal with hydrated samples such as tissues and bodily fluids, and many biological samples from the environment are also hydrated, e.g., air collector fluids, water washings, etc. By the nature of such samples, procedures and protective equipment are usually adequate to handle most diagnostic samples safely within the aforementioned Class II BSC at biosafety level (BSL)-2 biocontainment levels.11 However, certain forms of biological threat agents present unique problems with respect to their safe handling while protecting the forensic evidence. For example, powders can easily disperse in the air currents within a Class II biological safety cabinet, and in those cases where preserving forensic evidence is important, introducing liquid...

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