Hairpin Plasmids from the Plant Pathogenic Fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum

Teruyoshi Hashiba1 (K) • Atsushi Nagasaka2

1 Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi, Aoba-ku, 981-8555 Sendai, Japan [email protected]

2National Agricultural Research Center for Tohoku Region, Arai, 960-2156 Fukushima, Japan

1 Introduction 228

2 Detection of the Fungal Hairpin Plasmid 228

3 Incidence and Distribution 229

3.1 Linear Plasmids of Rhizoctonia solani 229

3.2 Linear Plasmids of Fusarium oxysporum 232

4 Structure 233

4.1 Covalently Closed Hairpin Ends Structure 233

4.2 Clothespin Structure 234

5 Mitochondrial Location of DNA Plasmids 235

6 Chromosome-Associated Plasmid 235

7 Function 236

7.1 Replication 236

7.1.1 Replication of pRS64 Plasmids 236

7.1.2 Replication of pFOXC2 and pFOXC3 Plasmids 237

7.2 Transcription 237

7.3 Translation 238

8 Effects of Plasmids 241

References 242

Abstract This review focuses on the biology of the hairpin plasmids from the plant pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. R. solani linear plasmid is single-stranded with covalently closed hairpin loops at each end. F. oxysporum plasmid, however, has a clothespin structure, which includes a terminal hairpin and noncovalently linked ends at the other terminus. We present the nucleotide sequence of the hairpin plasmids, the terminal hairpin structure, an analysis of an open reading frame in the sequence, the unique transcriptional form of this plasmid, and a proposed model for their replication.

Keywords Fungal hairpin plasmid • Hairpin-loop structure • Clothespin structure Rhizoctonia solani • Fusarium oxysporum • Plant pathogenic fungus

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