It is proposed that the central nervous system undergoes plastic changes in response to peripheral stimuli and new experiences. Consequently, alterations along central signaling processing system affect subsequent responses of animals and humans to the environment. Such long-term plastic changes not only play roles in important physiological functions such as learning and memory, but also are indispensable in unwanted pathological conditions such as chronic pain, drug addiction, and mental disorders. Investigation of such long-term plasticity using different animal models helps us to understand the molecular mechanism of brain functions. Here, I review recent work in the spinal cord dorsal horn, amygdale, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and discuss the injury and learning-related changes in different regions of the brain and their implications in brain functions and mental disorders.

Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Being addicted to drugs is a complicated matter condition that's been specified as a disorder that evidences in the obsessional thinking about and utilization of drugs. It's a matter that might continue to get worse and become disastrous and deadly if left untreated.

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