Of Pre And Postsynaptic Components89

7. CADHERIN LOCALIZATION AND FUNCTION DURING PLASTICITY 90

8. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF CADHERIN ACTION DURING SYNAPTOGENESIS AND SYNAPTIC FUNCTION 91

9. CADHERIN FUNCTIONS IN OTHER SYSTEMS 92

10. CONCLUSIONS 93

11. REFERENCES 93

Chapter 6: SYNAPTIC FUNCTIONS OF THE NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULE (NCAM), Alexander Dityatev 97

1. SUMMARY 97

2. INTRODUCTION 98

3. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF NCAM 98

3.1. Structure of NCAM 98

3.2. Extracellular Binding Partners of NCAM 98

3.3. Intracellular Signaling Mediated by NCAM 100

4. ROLES OF NCAM IN SYNAPTOGENESIS 100

4.1. Roles of NCAM Homologs in Aplysia and Drosophila 100

4.2. Role of NCAM in Synaptogenesis in Mammals 101

4.3. Role of NCAM in Initial Stages of Mammalian Synaptogenesis 104

5. NCAM AND SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY 105

5.1. Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity 105

5.2. Structural Plasticity in the Hypothalamo-Neurohypophysial

System 106

6. NCAM AND TRANSMITTER RELEASE 107

7. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS 108

8. REFERENCES 109

Chapter 7: ROLE OF NEUROLIGIN BINDING TO NEUREXINS IN SYNAPTIC ORGANIZATION, Richard Fairless, Carsten Reissner, and Markus Missler 111

1. SUMMARY 111

2. INTRODUCTION 111

3. BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN NEUREXIN AND NEUROLIGIN 112

3.1. Isoform-Dependent Binding 112

3.2. Glycosylation and Dimerization 112

3.3. Ca2+-Binding Sites 113

3.4. Intracellular Binding Partners 113

4. ROLE OF NEUROLIGIN AND ß-NEUREXIN IN SYNAPSE FORMATION AND FUNCTION IN VITRO 115

4.1. Effects on Synapse Formation 115

4.2. The Neuroligin/ß-Neurexin Complex and Synapse Function 118

5. THE NEUROLIGIN/ß-NEUREXIN COMPLEX AT EXCITATORY VERSUS INHIBITORY SYNAPSES 119

6. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF THE NEUROLIGIN/ß-NEUREXIN COMPLEX 120

7. CONCLUSIONS 122

8. REFERENCES 122

Chapter 8: SynCAM IN FORMATION AND FUNCTION OF SYNAPTIC SPECIALIZATIONS, Thomas Biederer 125

1. SUMMARY 125

2. Ig-SUPERFAMILY MEMBERS IN SYNAPTIC DIFFERENTIATION 125

3. SPECIFIC ADHESION SYSTEMS INCLUDING

THE IG-SUPERFAMILY MEMBER SynCAM 1 INDUCE

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