Introduction

FXS is the most common form of inherited mental impairment, with symptoms ranging from mild learning disabilities to severe mental retardation. This X chromosome-linked disorder most severely affects males, leaving them often nonverbal and with IQs in the range of 20-70. Other features of the disorder include increased anxiety, attention deficits, autistic behaviors, and altered physical features that include connective tissue irregularities, macro-orchidism (enlarged testes) and long ears. Approximately 25% of individuals with FXS have epilepsy1,2. Female heterozygotes with FXS exhibit much milder symptoms, and

'Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, 2136 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6T 1Z4; [email protected]

only about one-third of females will show significant intellectual impairment. This disorder affects approximately 1 in every 4,000 males and 1 in every 6,000 females, with a more astonishing 1 in 800 men and 1 in 259 women carrying a premutation (see Section 3) that could cause this disease in their children3. Males who carry a premutation normally have no symptoms until late adulthood, when they may show Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS). These symptoms involve parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, autonomic dysfunction, and cognitive impairment4. Females with a premutation are generally considered normal, with only a small portion developing anxiety and mood swings, and approximately 20% exhibiting premature ovarian failure5.

Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

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