In Synapses And Spines156

6.1. Effects on Actin Cytoskeleton 156

6.2. Endocytosis and Intracellular Trafficking 157

7. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS 159

8. REFERENCES 159

Chapter 11: EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX MOLECULES

AND FORMATION OF CNS SYNAPSES, Erik M. Ullian and

Alexander Dityatev 163

1. SUMMARY 163

2. INTRODUCTION 163

3. THROMBOSPONDINS 164

3.1. The Thrombospondin Family 164

3.2. Thrombospondin Receptors Are Highly Localized to

CNS Synapses 165

3.3. Induction of CNS Synapses by Thrombospondins 165

3.4. TSP1 and TSP2 Double Knockout Mice Have a Reduced Number of Synapses 166

4. NEURONAL PENTRAXINS 167

4.1. The Pentraxin Family 167

4.2. Pentraxin's Role in Glutamate Receptor Clustering 168

4.3. Pentraxin's Role in Synaptogenesis 169

5. TENASCIN-R 170

5.1. The Tenascin Family 170

5.2. Role of Tenascin-R in Formation of GABAergic Synapses 170

5.3. Tenascin-R and GABAb Receptors 170

6. AGRIN 171

6.1. Structure and Binding Partners of Agrin 171

6.2. Agrin's Role in Synaptogenesis 171

7. LAMININS 172

7.1. The Laminin Family 172

7.2. Synaptogenic Activity of Laminins 172

8. INTEGRIN'S ROLE IN FORMATION AND MATURATION OF SYNAPSES 173

9. REELIN 174

9.1. Reelin and Its Receptors 174

9.2. Reelin's Role in Synaptogenesis 174

9.3. Reelin and Synaptic Maturation 174

10. CONCLUSIONS 175

11. REFERENCES 176

Chapter 12: ROLE OF NEUROTROPHINS IN THE FORMATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SYNAPSES, Newton H. Woo, Hyun-soo Je, and Bai Lu 179

1. SUMMARY 179

2. INTRODUCTION 179

3. NEUROTROPHIN SIGNALING 180

4. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION 183

5. HIPPOCAMPUS AND CEREBELLUM 186

6. OPTIC TECTUM 188

7. VISUAL CORTEX 189

8. BARREL CORTEX 191

9. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES 191

10. REFERENCES 192

PART III: TRANSPORT OF SYNAPTIC PROTEINS 195

Chapter 13: MOTOR-CARGO INTERACTIONS INVOLVED IN TRANSPORT OF SYNAPTIC PROTEINS, Matthias Kneussel 197

1. SUMMARY 197

2. INTRODUCTION 198

3. ORGANIZATION AND POLARITY OF MICROTUBULES,

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