In Depression425

7. REFERENCES 428

Chapter 29: SYNAPTIC PATHOLOGY IN DEMENTIA,

Stephen W. Scheff 431

1. SUMMARY 431

2. INTRODUCTION 431

3. NORMAL AGING AND SYNAPSE LOSS 432

4. AD-RELATED SYNAPTIC ALTERATIONS IN NEOCORTEX 434

4.1. Frontal Cortex (Brodmann Areas 9, 10, 46) 435

4.2. Temporal Cortex (Brodmann Areas 20, 21, 22) 435

4.3. Inferior Parietal Cortex (Brodmann Areas 39, 40) 436

4.4. Other Cortical and Subcortical Areas 436

5. SYNAPTIC ALTERATIONS IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS 437

6. CHANGES IN APPOSITION SIZE 438

7. REASONS FOR SYNAPTIC DECLINE IN AD 439

8. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS 440

9. REFERENCES 440

Chapter 30: A FRAGILE SYNAPSE: CHANGES AT THE SYNAPSE IN FRAGILE X SYNDROME, Alina Webber and Brian R. Christie 445

1. SUMMARY 445

2. INTRODUCTION 445

3. GENETICS 446

4. MODELS OF FXS 447

5. CHANGES IN BRAIN ANATOMY AND THE SYNAPSE 447

6. SUMMARY OF FMRP PROPOSED MECHANISM OF ACTION 449

7. FMRP, MRNA, AND PROTEIN INTERACTIONS 449

8. SYNAPTIC ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY AND THE mGLUR THEORY

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