It becomes clear that peripheral sensory inputs can trigger long-term plasticity in the central nervous system, and that plasticity depends on both the intensity (non-noxious versus noxious) and the duration of the stimulus (acute or chronic). In the case of brief noxious stimulation, fear memory can be coded along the sensory transmission pathways (such as the amygdala and the ACC). By altering synaptic transmission through pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, fearful and painful information is physiologically important for animals and humans to gain knowledge about dangerous information in the environment, and learn to avoid such stimuli and protect themselves in the future. In the case of injury, long-term plastic changes are likely to happen along sensory transmission pathways, including dorsal horn synapses and central synapses in the forebrains. These abnormal enhancements are not beneficial to health, and may contribute to chronic pain and its related fear, anxiety, and depression. There are many reports of possible structural changes after the injury in the central nervous system such as cortical organization. Future studies are clearly needed to understand the synaptic and molecular basis of these permanent structural changes. Identifying molecular signaling molecules and proteins that are involved in plasticity will help us to understand brain mechanisms for memory, and design better medicines to treat patients with different brain diseases.

Getting to Know Anxiety

Getting to Know Anxiety

Stop Letting Anxiety Rule Your Life And Take Back The Control You Desire Right Now! You don't have to keep letting your anxiety disorder run your life. You can take back your inner power and change your life for the better starting today! In order to have control of a thing, you first must understand it. And that is what this handy little guide will help you do. Understand this illness for what it is. And, what it isn't.

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