We (Imamura et al., 2003) identified by Western blot analysis TNF-alpha protein as a 21-kDa band, IL-6 protein as a 17-kDa band, and MHC-II (CR3/43) protein as 34-and 28-kDa bands in homogenates of the putamen and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from PD patients, in agreement with our previous results by ELISA (Mogi and Nagatsu, 2000; Nagatsu et al., 1999). We then showed by immunohistochemistry that almost all activated microglia in the putamen from PD brains are positive for both ICAM-1 and LFA-1. We further proved by double immunofluorostaining the coexistence of TNF-alpha and IL-6 with MHC class II (CR3/43) in ICAM-1- and LFA-1-positive activated microglia in the putamen from PD patients. These results confirm that TNF-alpha and IL-6 are produced by activated microglia in the putamen in PD (Imamura et al., 2003).
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