Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

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Eula Bingham PhD John Zapp PhD deceased

It was in the very early period of prehistory that humans must have become aware of the phenomenon of toxicity. Some fruits, berries, and vegetation could be eaten with safety and to their benefit, whereas others caused illness or even death. The bite of the asp or adder could be fatal, whereas the bite of many other snakes was not. Humans learned from experience to classify things into categories of safe and harmful. Personal survival depended on recognition and avoidance, so far as possible, of the dangerous categories.

Incidence And Association Of Human Pathogens With Produce

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiated a 1000-sample survey of imported fresh produce raw agricultural commodities from 21 countries and included broccoli, loose-leaf lettuce (radicchio, escarole, endive, chicory leaf, mesclun, and others), cantaloupe, celery, strawberries, scallions green onions, tomatoes, parsley, culantro (a herb), and cilantro 12 . Loose-leaf lettuce products included radicchio, escarole, endive, chicory and others. These high-volume imported fresh produce raw agricultural commodities were selected by the FDA for the imported produce sampling assignment based on the following risk factor criteria epidemiological outbreak data, structural characteristics of the produce item, growing conditions, processing and consumption rates. Raw agricultural commodities are defined in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as any food in its raw or natural state, including all fruits that are washed, colored, or otherwise treated in the unpeeled...

Oxidative Stress as a Risk Factor

It is possible that the age-dependent progressive increases in brain oxidative stress contributes or facilitates AD lesions. This hypothesis would indicate the convenience of effective measures to prevent and treat brain oxidative stress. However, until now, there have not been conclusive studies demonstrating efficacy of vitamin C and E in arresting or significantly delaying the onset of AD. More recently, the use of agents capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, such as lipoic or dehydroascorbic acids, has been suggested (Harman, 2006). There is a large list of antioxidant compounds that have been suggested as beneficial to prevent or delay AD including defined chemical entities or natural products such as green tea, ginkgo biloba, red wine, blueberries, etc. Some effort is being made to define the efficacy of defined extracts (e.g., from blueberries or spinach) and of assessing their effects in suitable cell and animal models (Joseph, Shukitt-Hale, & Casadesus, 2005). Although...

Infiltration of the Plant Surface by Aqueous Cell Suspensions

Pressure-driven infiltration of fruits and vegetables means that pressure on water covering plant surfaces forces water into surface apertures despite air bubbles and the waxy nature of the pore surfaces. The cooling of fruits and vegetables leads to a reduction of gas pressures in the apoplast 54 , particularly if the surface apertures are clogged with liquid. This pressure differential would persist until internal temperatures and gas pressures equilibrate with the external environment. Tomatoes allowed to cool while submerged in water may increase in weight due to water uptake 30,51 . Hydrocooled tomatoes increased in weight as they cooled 34 as did hydrocooled strawberries 52 . If the water contained cells of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora or spores of Botrytis cinerea, water uptake correlated with a rapid development of internal lesions when the tomatoes or strawberries, respectively, were subsequently stored. When submerged in an aqueous cell suspension of E. coli at 2 C,...

Implications And Control

Whether water chlorination eliminates the need to suppress completely water infiltration during postharvest handling is unclear. The infiltration of tomatoes with chlorinated water failed to prevent the development of postharvest decay when submerged fruits were treated with hydrostatic pressure at room temperature 69 , but did prevent such decays when fruits were hydrocooled 34 . The presence of chlorine in the water appeared to increase the porosity of tomato stem scars 69 . The chlorination of the water used to hydrocool strawberries led to a significant reduction in botrytis fruit rot 52 . As noted above, however, chlorinated water treatments have consistently failed to eradicate completely microorganisms from fruit or vegetables likely to have internalized a portion of the contamination. For example, the washing of contaminated wounds on tomato fruit with over 500 ppm free chlorine at pH 7.0 reduced the subsequent development of soft rot by 50 in one test and had no effect in two...

Other intestinal protozoa

Of contaminated raspberries from Guatemala (Herwaldt and Ackers 1997). Little is known about the epidemiology of Dientamoeba fragilis in Canada or Alaska other than the fact that it is present in selected population sub-groups (e.g. daycare centre staff and children) (Keystone et al. 1984). The presence of non-pathogenic intestinal protozoa has not been systematically studied in Canada or Alaska. Data from large provincial laboratories show rates similar to those in other industrialized countries. There has been no systematic effort to study the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Canada or Alaska. Prevalence rates have ranged from 0 in 57 Qu bec women with dysparunia (Bazin et al. 1994) to 7.3 for women attending an STD clinic in Nova Scotia between 1983 and 1985 (Pereira et al. 1990).

From Research to Administration

Diet seems to affect the risk of developing colon cancer and perhaps other cancers. Diets high in fat, alcohol, and charred or pickled meats increase cancer risk. On the other hand, diets containing large quantities of fruits and vegetables reduce risk. Fruits and vegetables such as blueberries and broccoli contain compounds that keep carcinogens from damaging DNA.

Novel Disinfection Treatments 1051 Hydrogen Peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in food products 43 . It is used as a bleaching agent, oxidizing and reducing agent, and antimicrobial agent. The FDA specifies approved food uses of hydrogen peroxide such as treatment of milk used for cheese, preparation of modified whey, and production of thermophile-free starch. However, the FDA requires that the residual hydrogen peroxide be removed by physical or chemical means during processing. Hydrogen peroxide has not yet been approved by the FDA for washing fruits and vegetables. Antimicrobial activity of hydrogen peroxide as a preservative for fruits and vegetables 44 , salad vegetables, berries, and fresh-cut melons 45 has been reported. Also it has been used to control postharvest decay in table grapes 46 . When used as a

Interdependence A Key Theme In Ecology

Although the field of ecology was not named until 1866, ecological information and understanding have always been crucial to humans. Before the development of agriculture, about 10,000-12,000 years ago, our ancestors obtained all of their food by hunting animals and gathering plants, seeds, berries, and nuts. Their survival depended on practical knowledge about the environment. Although most humans today don't survive as hunter-gatherers, they interact with the environment and other organisms every day.

Description Of The Foodborne Outbreaks For Both Parasites

Four commodities have been implicated with cyclospora foodborne outbreaks raspberries, basil, lettuce, and snow peas. Since the early 1990s sporadic cases of cyclosporiasis were reported in the U.S., but no source of contamination was identified. The first large cyclospora outbreak occurred in 1995 in Florida. Strawberries were initially implicated in the outbreak, but later epidemiological investigations suggested that raspberries were responsible. In 1996, 1465 cases of cyclosporiasis were reported in 20 states in the U.S. In 1997, 41 clusters comprising 762 cases were reported during the months of April and May in 9 states. Raspberries, basil, and lettuce were implicated in this outbreak. Also during April to June of the same year, 250 laboratory-confirmed sporadic cases were reported. In all instances, imported raspberries were associated with the outbreak. As a result of this, Guatemala voluntarily suspended the exportation of raspberries. In 1998 a few sporadic cases of...

Apple and fruit vinegar

Incidence 4 19*, conc. range 50-2000 g kg, 0 conc. 250 g kg, country France853, *home-made, industrial see also apple flavor, apples (stewed fruit), berries (blueberry), berries (lingonberry), berries (mulberry), berries (raspberry), berries (strawberry), cassava, cheese, food (baby), fruit products, fruits (apple), fruits (apricot), fruits (cherry), fruits (peach), fruits (pear), fruits (plum), jam, jam (apple), juice, juice (apple), juice (apple-acerola), juice (apple, concentrate), juice (cherry), juice (currant), juice (fruit), juice (grape), juice (orange), juice (peach), juice (pear), must, pulp (plum), syrup (apple), vinegar incidence 3 14, conc. 6-1770 g kg, 0 conc. 607 g kg, country Finland700 see also apple cider, apples (stewed fruit), berries (blueberry), berries (lingonberry), berries (mulberry), berries (raspberry), berries (strawberry), cassava, cheese, food (baby), fruit products, fruits (apple), fruits (apricot), fruits (cherry), fruits (peach), fruits (pear), fruits...

Efficacy in Reducing Microorganisms on Different Produce Surfaces

The efficacy of batch and continuous ClO2 gas treatments in reducing pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms on several fruits and vegetables, including green peppers, apples, potatoes, strawberries, cantaloupes, and lettuce, has been evaluated (Table 18.4). Results show that more than a 5 log reduction of selected pathogens such as E. coli O157 H7, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. can be achieved on these produce surfaces while maintaining acceptable quality, except for lettuce leaves where leaf discoloration was noted. Gaseous ClO2 has been shown to be a more effective sanitizer for fruits and vegetables than aqueous ClO2 and chlorinated water wash. More than 6logCFU of L. monocytogenes on uninjured green pepper surfaces and 3.5logCFU on injured surfaces were inactivated using a batch ClO2 treatment system with 3mg l ClO2 gas treatment for 10 minutes at 20 C and 90 to 95 RH. However, a 3mg l aqueous ClO2 treatment for 10 minutes at 20 C achieved

Effects of ClO2 Gas Treatment on Quality of Produce

Effects of ClO2 gas treatments on quality of produce have not been extensively studied. However, some researchers have shown minimal quality effects on several types of produce, including green peppers 37 , apples 40,41,43 , cantaloupes 42 , strawberries 38 , and potatoes 39 . Han et al. reported 37,38 that no aerobic microorganisms (aerobic plate count, APC) were detected after treatment of strawberries with 3.0mg l ClO2 gas for 10 minutes followed by a 1-week storage period at 4 C and after treatment of green peppers with 0.6mg l ClO2 gas for 10 minutes followed by a 4-week storage period. Additionally, the color of both strawberry and green pepper surfaces did not change significantly (p 0.05) during the storage period after ClO2 gas treatments. Residues of ClO2 and chlorite on strawberries treated with 3 mg l ClO2 gas for 10 minutes were 0.19 0.33 mg ClO2 kg and 1.17 2.02mg Cl2 kg while after 1 week of storage no ClO2 residues were detected, and residual chlorite levels were...

Landscape and Climate

What makes a terroir good for growing wine The inra agronomists showed that in Alsace, more than in the Bordeaux region or the Loire Valley, the principal differences result from variations in the maturity of the grapes at the moment of harvest. In all the wine-growing regions studied, water nourishment conditions played a major role in determining, among other things, the length of time between the fruiting of the vine and the ripening of the grapes. Maturation comes late when water is plentiful because the vine produces leaves rather than berries. When the supply of water is insufficient, maturation is delayed as well, but the adage that the vine must be made to suffer if it is to produce grapes is only partly true The supply of water should decline both moderately and regularly.

Microorganisms on Produce Surfaces

The efficacy of ozone gas in reducing foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms has been studied on produce, including green peppers, carrots, black peppers, grapes, strawberries, and lettuce (Table 18.5). High concentrations ( 1000ppm or 2 mg l) of gaseous ozone treatments have been shown to be extremely effective in reducing E. coli 0157 H7 85 and bacillus spores 82 on filter paper. Han et al. 66 found that a greater than 5 log reduction (CFU site) of E. coli 0157 H7 on green pepper surface could be achieved by a continuous ozone gas treatment at 5 mg l for 25 minutes under 70 RH and at 22 C. Sarig et al. 87 reported that microbial counts on grapes were significantly reduced after an 8 mg l ozone gas treatment for 20 minutes. Zhao and Cranston 68 treated ground black peppers with 6.7 mg l ozonized air (6 l min). They found a greater than 3 log reduction of E. coli and Salmonella spp. after

Regulatory Considerations

Although the FDA has approved the use of aqueous ClO2 (3 ppm residual) to wash fruits and vegetables, it has not granted permission to use the gaseous form of ClO2 as a sanitizer for decontaminating produce. It is assumed that gaseous ClO2 treatment would be very similar to aqueous ClO2, producing similar oxychloro byproducts (chlorine, ClO2, chlorate, and chlorite) as an aqueous ClO2 treatment. Based on existing scientific literature and data related to exposure to drinking water containing 1 mg kg of the oxidant species (chlorine, ClO2, chlorate, and chlorite), the use of aqueous chlorine dioxide is not likely to lead to chemical byproducts that are harmful to human health 10 . The research group at Purdue University has shown that residuals of ClO2 and chlorite on green peppers were not detectable after a 4-week storage period and after a 1-week storage period for strawberries 37,38 . However, in order to pursue regulatory approval for the use of ClO2 gas for decontamination of...

Pretreatments and Miscellaneous Strategies

Treatment of produce with methyl jasmonate prior to MAP has been found to be successful in suppressing fungal decay in a number of commodities, including fresh-cut celery and peppers, grapefruit, papaya, strawberries, zucchini squash, mango, and avocado 35 the effects and mode of action of jasmonates in reducing disease development differ among various crops and pathogens. Synergistic activity between methyl jasmonate treatments and MAP As a treatment prior to MAP packaging, nonionizing, artificial UVC radiation has the potential to be effective in reducing the initial microbial load on produce, providing shelf life extension. UVC has been shown to damage microbial DNA, an effect that weakens or kills microbial cells. Some bacteria have been found to utilize repair mechanisms to overcome DNA damage, and some cells may mutate. Thus typically UVC treatment results in a reduction of microbial load but not complete sterilization. Allende and Artes 13 found that treatments of 254 nm UVC...

Prevention and Treatment

No preventive measures are available except boiling or filtering drinking water and thoroughly washing produce such as berries and leafy vegetables during an epidemic. Cotrimoxazole (trimetho-prim plus sulfamethoxazole) effectively treats most cases of cyclosporiasis. The oocysts of C. cayetanensis are not infectious when discharged in the feces, and so person-to-person spread does not occur.Travelers to tropical countries are at risk of infection. Produce, especially raspberries, imported from tropical Central America, has been implicated in most North American outbreaks Use of boiled or filtered drinking water is advised in the tropics. Thorough washing of imported berries and leafy vegetables. Most victims are effectively treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (trade names Bactrim, Septra)

Antioxidant Activities Of Flavonoids

Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species are major factors in the pathophysiology of CVD. The protective mechanism of flavonoids associated with reducing CVD is believed to be due to the potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities that prevent oxidation of LDL.12 Cao et al. studied the serum antioxidant capacities of eight elderly women after intake of strawberries, spinach, red wine, and vitamin C to determine which antioxidant nutrients provided the best protection. The study indicated that the potentially important antioxidants other than vitamin C contained in the foods consumed produced over 80 of the total antioxidant capacity. Cao et al. concluded that the consumption of the rich antioxidant phenolic compounds contained in strawberries, spinach, and red wine are able to increase serum antiox-idant capacities in humans.3 Flavonoids are the largest class and the most common group of plant polyphenols with over 5000 subclasses identified, and are responsible for...

Antimicrobial Chemicals

Some foods contain natural antimicrobial chemicals that may help prevent spoilage. Egg white, for instance, is rich in lysozyme. If lysozyme-susceptible bacteria breach the protective shell of an egg, they are destroyed by lysozyme before they can cause spoilage. Other examples of naturally occurring antimicrobial chemicals are benzoic acid, which is found in cranberries, allicin in garlic, and an antibacterial peroxidase system, similar to that found in phagocytes, which is in raw milk. lysozyme, p. 60 peroxidase enzymes, p. 375

Natural Occurrence Of P expansum And Patulin In Fruits And Vegetables

Penicillium expansum is one of the most pervasive and destructive postharvest pathogens of pome fruits such as apples and pears, but it can affect other fruits including tomatoes, strawberries, avocados, bananas, mangoes, grapes, peaches, and apricots 3,68 . The primary habitat of P. expansum is in fruit storage and packinghouse facilities, but it can also be found in orchard soil, seeds of various plants, and on the surface and in the core of unblemished fruit. The fungus is primarily a wound pathogen, gaining entrance through fresh mechanical injuries such as stem puncture, bruises and insect injuries, hail or weather-related damage, and fingernail scratches caused by fruit pickers 73 . There are also reports of the fungi entering apple fruits through open calyx canals, at the point of attachment of stem to fruit, and through skin lenticels 73 . The infection often occurs while apples are still on the tree, but it remains latent until the fruit is harvested and stored 66 . The...

Effects of Ozone Gas Treatments on Quality of Fruits and Vegetables

Ozone gas can be used to prevent fungal decay and rot of fruits and vegetables during cold storage 55 . Those products include bananas, citrus fruits, apples, berries, peaches, and potatoes. Ozone can also retard the ripening process of fruit and vegetables by oxidation of ethylene released during storage. Ewell 95 indicated that the shelf life of strawberries, raspberries, and grapes could be doubled when 2 to 3ppm ozone is applied continuously for a few hours per day. Barth et al. 86 reported that 0.3 ppm treatment suppressed fungal development for 12 days at 2 C, and did not cause observable injury or defects on thornless blackberries. By the 12th day, anthocyanin content and surface color were maintained however, peroxidase activity was reduced. Norton et al. 92 found that 0.6 ppm ozone at 15 C was effective in controlling fungus rot on Early Black and Howe varieties of cranberries, but caused weight loss and quality damage by the second and third week. Perez et al. 90 also...

Advantages and Disadvantages of Application

With the exploding demand for fresh fruits and vegetables by consumers in North America comes the necessary importation of produce from areas of the world where crops can be grown and harvested all year round. For example, the Produce Marketing Association stated that imports of fresh produce increased from 13.8 billion pounds in 1993 to 20.2 billion pounds in 2000. The quality of fruit in winter is now nearly equivalent to fruit sold in the warmer months due to significant improvements in storage, transportation, and distribution. Unfortunately, the incidence of foodborne illness also coincides with this increased bounty of fresh fruits and vegetables (both domestic and imported). For example, in the marketplace the most dangerous food related to acute illness is not derived from meat, milk, eggs, or seafood, but is a plant product sprouts 1 . In fact, while meat is the most regulated and monitored food commodity, in comparison fruits and vegetables receive only a fraction of...

Film Permeability and CO2O2 Permselectivity

Use of a composite film comprising ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and oriented polypropylene (OPP) can enhance or improve gas permeability characteristics. Shredded cabbage and grated carrot stored in this composite material achieved an extension of shelf life of 2 to 3 days over that achieved in OPP alone 20 . Films have been developed with pores (micro-perforations) or holes (macro-perforations) to increase the O2 transmission rate, resulting in more equal rates of movement of O2 and CO2 between the internal package atmosphere and external atmosphere, achieving permeability ratios of CO2 to O2 near 1. Micro-perforated films may be appropriate for products with a high respiration rate, such as strawberries, where finer control of package atmosphere is desired, where internal package O2 depletion is a concern, or where temperature fluctuations may be anticipated.

How to make a chocolate mousse without eggs

The words chantilly cream conjure up images of fresh strawberries, ice cream, and airy desserts. Chantilly is a kind of foam, or mousse, made by whipping cream in a chilled bowl. When the whisk is guided in a circular motion, through a vertical plane, its wire loops steadily introduce air bubbles in the cream that are stabilized by the molecules of the casein (a protein) and by the crystallization of the fatty droplets. This crystallization takes place at a low temperature, which is why the cream and the bowl must be chilled beforehand. This cooling process also prevents the cream from turning into butter. To obtain the best results, stop whipping the cream once strands begin to form inside the loops of the whisk.

Improved Spatial Resolution

A particular advantage of the MHCT scanner relates to its multiplanar reconstruction capabilities. In the coronal, sagittal, and oblique planes, image resolution is determined mainly by image acquisition slice thickness. Although stairstep artifact can be reduced with thinner reconstruction intervals, one is still limited by partial-volume artifact that causes blurring of the reconstructed image. By allowing thinner images to be acquired during a single-breath-hold scan, image resolution of multiplanar images can be dramatically improved. If volumetric image acquisition is obtained with 1-mm thick slices (also referred to as an isotropic volumetric scan), then image reconstructions can be performed with 1-mm voxels (three-dimensional pixel with x, y, and z dimensions of 1 mm). This allows any reconstructed image in the oblique plane to have comparable spatial resolution to the original axial image. In the following example (Figs. 9, 10, and 11), a box of fruit (apple, orange,...

Beyond Radical Scavenging

Hyperoxia is the result of an excess of oxygen in tissues or organs. Although hyperoxia is generally not experienced under normal basal circumstances, it can be induced experimentally by increasing the level of atmospheric oxygen. Hyper-oxia is an excepted model of oxidative stress and generally results in a significant increase in oxygen radical production followed by the induction of vast quantities of endogenous antioxidant defense enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Supplementation of an anthocyanin-rich extract from blueberries was reported to impose resistance to hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress in rats without affecting endogenous serum antioxidant enzymes.77

Conclusion And Therapeutic Outlook

The vitamins, tocopherol (vitamin E) and vitamin C are potent free-radical scavengers. However, although an important role of vitamin E for neuroprotection following amyloid A -peptide-mediated neuronal damage in vitro has been established, the DATATOP trial showed that it could not reduce the dosage of l-DOPA in PD, indicating that restriction of its site of action to specific compartments may not be sufficient for radical defense in PD or that the beginning of the therapeutic application might have been too late. Similarly, vitamin C, which acts synergistically with vitamin E in the inhibition of oxidation reactions, has been shown to act in a neuroprotective manner in various in vitro and in vivo experiments, when it is applied in the oxidized form such as dehydroascorbic acid. Other nutritional components which have shown antioxidative properties in animal models of PD and in vitro experiments include selenium, flavonoids (essential compound in green tea, red wine, blueberries,...

EFruits and Vegetables

Fruits and vegetables are readily available in developed countries and are a natural source of nutrients, fiber, and potent antioxidants. During an intervention assay the amount of DNA damage in the peripheral lymphocytes of test subjects was substantially reduced. Thus, the number of mutations can be reduced, as well as the possibility of developing tumors.29 Fruits and vegetables may be up to 20 d.w. of the diet of vegetarians, which includes high levels of phenolics. Some phenolics have been considered as trapping agents of nitrates, preventing the formation of the mutagenic N-nitroso compounds, which in turn have been linked to cancers of the nasopharynx, esophagus, and stomach. Additionally, phenolics are part of the detoxification systems.30 Currently, blueberries are emerging as one of the brightest prospects among fruits. Products from blueberries and other Vaccinium sp. can be marketed as dietary supplements in the United States with a structure-function claim such as promote...

Brief History Of The Human Diet

Early man met his needs for macro- and micronutrients via a largely herbivorous diet (12). It has been postulated that as man moved toward a more nutrient-dense diet, this facilitated an increase in brain dimension with a concomitant decrease in gut size (13). Such a diet was likely to contain not just animal fat and protein but plants (leaves shoots roots berries). Clearly, a significant mismatch exists between our ancestral diet and our contemporary one, which is energy rich-nutrient poor. This book examines not just some of the more interesting nutritional selection pressures that forged our species, and that are dealt with in this chapter, but it will also attempt to examine how incompatibility between programming in our ancestral genes and the dietary consequences of an agricultural revolution has led to the evolution of chronic debilitating human diseases within modern society (Figure 2.1).

Contamination By Human Pathogens

Irrigation water is another potential vector by which contaminants may be brought in contact with fruits and vegetables. Well water is perceived to be less likely to be contaminated with human pathogens than surface water supplies, due to the limited access to sources of potential contamination. Production agriculture operations routinely test irrigation water sources for the presence of human pathogens and or indicator microorganisms. However, such testing is of only limited value, particularly for flowing surface water sources, since water tested at any given point in time will not necessarily be the same water used to irrigate crops in the future. Whenever water comes in direct contact with edible portions of fruits and vegetables, particular care should be taken to ensure that the water does not contain human pathogens. Pesticide application with contaminated water is thought to be the cause of the 1996 cyclosporosis outbreak associated with fresh raspberries grown in Guatemala...

Peripheral neuropathy

Diphtheria is now extremely rare in Europe and North America but cases were recently reported from Estonia18 and the diagnosis should be considered in patients with a recent upper respiratory infection, especially if there is prominent palatal involvement.19 Buckthorn neuropathy need only be suspected in those who have consumed berries from this bush in Mexico.20 Drugs usually cause an insidiously progressive distal axonopathy without respiratory involvement, but acute paralysis with respiratory failure occurred in a patient being treated with vincristine, possibly due to coincidental GBS.21 Both T and B cell lymphomas may cause acute neoplastic infiltration of the peripheral nervous system which can resemble GBS.22 Sometimes acute neuropathy is the presenting feature of the lymphoma. Vasculitic neuropathy rarely causes respiratory failure and usually only does so in the setting of a systemic illness with cutaneous, renal, and lung involvement. Acute neuropathy occurs in acute...

Arndt Bssing

Mistletoes belong to the families Loranthaceae and Viscaceae, which both are taxonomically related to each other, and share the order Santalales. The family of Viscaceae has seven genera (Arceuthobium, Dendrophthora, Ginalloa, Korthalsella, Notothixos, Phoradendron, Viscum) and several hundred species world-wide. The European white-berry mistletoe (Viscum album L.) is an evergreen, dioecious plant growing half-parasitically on its host. V. album is a small shrub with linear lanceolate leathery leaves which persist for several seasons. The yellowish-green flowers grow in the sprout axil and develop the translucent, whitish berries in the late fall and early winter. Theophrastos (371-286 BC) described mistletoe as an evergreen plant growing on pine and fir trees, fed to animals. He recognised that mistletoe does not grow on the earth, but is spread to trees by birds whose excretions contain seeds from the berries.


Anise, atlas cedar, eucalyptus dives, yarrow, clary sage, chamomile, pennyroyal, and rosemary oils are not to be used during pregnancy spike lavender and niaouli, which have hormone-like properties, should be used with caution. Fennel oil stimulates the production of estrogen and is not to be used if an individual has breast cancer or if there is a family history of the disease. Basil and possibly tarragon oils can be carcinogenic in large quantities. Thuja, wormwood, mugwort, tansy, and hyssop are toxic when taken internally. Pine is not to be used internally. Hyssop and thuja should be administered only in small doses externally. Pennyroyal is poisonous in large doses. Savory and oregano dosages are not to exceed three drops taken internally and not to be used for more than a 21-day period. Oregano, thyme, and savory are not for external use although thyme and oregano are well tolerated if rubbed into the soles of the feet. Internal use of thyme should not exceed three drops per...


Echinococcus multilocularis infection is transmitted to man in natural foci through the shooting of game, by eating wild berries contaminated by the excrement of wild carnivores or by drinking polluted water from natural reservoirs. The survival time of onchospheres was up to 67 days in the excrement of foxes covered with snow, in a straw stack, at the bottom of a lake in the Siberian winter. Dogs are infected with E. multilocularis by hunting for small rodents. Transmission of E. granulosus infection is due to

Host Specifity

Leaf area may vary for the subspecies (Ball 1993, Singer 1958). Also the amount of embryos per berry varies. While ssp. platyspermen tends to diembryonal, the percentage of monoembryonal berries is higher in ssp. abietes and ssp. laxum. Tubeuf (1923) already pointed out that any criteria used to distinguish the subspecies can be found in the other two subspecies as well, e.g. the size of the leaves depends very much from the nutrition of the host tree and the position of the parasite within the host tree. The only criteria to distinguish the three subspecies by morphological criteria was described by Grazi and Urech (1981). If the ripe berries are squeezed, the seed of the ssp. abietes and ssp. laxum are easily freed from the skin and from the viscous layer. When the berries of ssp. platyspermum are squeezed, the viscous layer remains attached to the skin and the seed. The two subspecies on softwood trees can be distinguished from the appearance of their embryos. The embryo of ssp....

Viscum Album Group

Viscum Album Parts

Young internodes slightly flattened, broadened upwards, ribbed. Leafy. Monoecious. Dichasia mostly lateral, mostly 3-flowered, central male, lateral or all female. Bracteal cups pedunculate. Berries sessile, smooth, n 14. Widespread in diverse forest types. V. triflorum DC., V. petiolatum Polh. & Wiens. Group 2. Viscum congolense group. Young internodes as V. triflorum group. Leafy, the base with a slight cavity. Dioecious, with skewed sex ratios. Dichasia mostly lateral, often more than 3-flowered, especially in female. Bracteal cups pedunculate. Berries subsessile, smooth to minutely tuberculate. 2n 22 in female, 23 in male. Forests of Congolian region and East Africa. V. congolense De Wild., V. fischeri Engl., V. luisengense Polh. & Wiens. Group 3. Viscum rotundifolium group. Young internodes subterete, ribbed. Leafy. Monoecious. Dichasia 3-flowered, central male, in sessile to pedunculate bracteal cups. Berries stipitate, smooth, n 14. South...

Juice Production

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines juice as the aqueous liquid expressed or extracted from one or more fruits or vegetables, purees of the edible portions of one or more fruits and vegetables, or any concentrates of such liquid or puree'' 13 . Produce production is beyond the scope of this chapter, but it is critical to recognize that fruit and vegetables used for juice manufacture should be produced, harvested, and transported using good agricultural practices (GAPs). Only high-quality produce should be used. Juice processing begins with the reception of the raw produce at the processing facility. Raw produce is inspected and culled according to established good manufacturing practices (GMPs). Removal of defective raw material is critical to the production of a quality juice product. This is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 16. Sound raw produce is then cleaned and sanitized prior to extraction or maceration. For some products, such as apples and oranges, a...


All animals, most protists, all fungi, and many bacteria are het-erotrophs. Unlike autotrophs, heterotrophs cannot manufacture their own food. Instead, they get energy by eating other organisms or organic wastes. Ecologically speaking, heterotrophs are consumers. They obtain energy by consuming organic molecules made by other organisms. Consumers can be grouped according to the type of food they eat. Herbivores eat producers. An antelope that eats grass is a herbivore. Carnivores eat other consumers. Lions, cobras, and praying mantises are examples of carnivores. Omnivores eat both producers and consumers. The grizzly bear, whose diet ranges from berries to salmon, is an omnivore.

Sowing Mistletoe

Mistletoe fruits with viable embryos are available from October to May. The seed can, however, only be sown to good effect during a relatively short time that is limited by a number of factors. Mistletoe seeds applied to the host in late autumn or winter are frequently eaten by tits (Grazi, 1986 Weber, 1993 Grazi and Urech, 1996). On the other hand, availability of mistletoe fruit may be greatly reduced by the beginning of the new vegetative period, as some species of birds show a preference for eating mistletoe berries in winter. Germination of the remaining seeds may also be advanced so far that the elongated hypocotyls are no longer able to connect with the host branch. The optimal time for applying mistletoe seed is from mid-March to mid-May, depending mainly on the geographical situation.

Harmful Plants

Despite the many benefits plants provide, some plants can also cause harm. Many deaths are caused by addictive plant products, such as tobacco, cocaine, opium, and alcohol. Some plant species are harmful when eaten or touched. Poison ivy and poison oak give an itchy rash to millions of Americans each year. Children are often poisoned, though usually not fatally, when they eat the leaves or colorful berries of house or garden plants. Despite widespread reports to the contrary, the popular Christmas plant poinsettia is not deadly, but its sap may cause skin irritation. However, holly berries and parts of mistletoe are poisonous.


See also apple cider, apple flavor, berries (blueberry), berries (lingonberry), berries (mulberry), berries (raspberry), berries (strawberry), cassava, cheese, food (baby), fruit products, fruits (apple), fruits (apricot), fruits (cherry), fruits (peach), fruits (pear), fruits (plum), jam, jam (apple), juice, juice (apple), juice (apple-acerola), juice (apple, concentrate), juice (cherry), juice (currant), juice (fruit), juice (grape), juice (orange), juice (peach), juice (pear), must, pulp (plum), syrup (apple), vinegar

Types Of Fruits

Botanists define a fruit as a mature ovary. Many different types of fruits have evolved among the flowering plants. Figure 30-11 shows examples of some of these fruit types. Fertilization usually initiates the development of fruits. Fruits protect seeds, aid in their dispersal, and often delay their sprouting. Fruits are classified mainly on the basis of two characteristics how many pistils or flowers form the fruit, and whether the fruit is dry or fleshy. Table 30-1 presents a classification system for fruits. Notice that fruits with common names that include nut or berry may not be actual nuts or berries. For example, a peanut is actually a legume, not a nut. You may have heard the fleshy seeds of ginkgo, juniper, and yew trees referred to as berries. These names are misleading because ginkgo, juniper, and yew trees are gymnosperms, which do not form fruits.


Auxins (AWK-suhnz) are hormones involved in plant-cell elongation, shoot and bud growth, and rooting. A well-known natural auxin is indoleacetic (IN-DOHL-uh-SEET-ik) acid, or IAA. Developing seeds produce IAA, which stimulates the development of fleshy structures such as fruit. An experiment with strawberries, shown in Figure 31-1, provides one form of experimental evidence about the role of IAA in plants. The removal of the seed-containing parts from a strawberry prevents the fleshy structure from enlarging. However, if IAA is then applied, the strawberry enlarges normally.


Believed to be important for fat metabolism, immune function and healing, endocrine function, and neutralization of toxicity also an antioxidant. Important to take adequate doses on a regular basis many individuals will do best on 10 to 15 grams of sodium ascorbate daily, taken under the direction of their health care provider. Common dietary sources papaya, orange, cantaloupe, broccoli, brussels sprouts, green peppers, grapefruit, strawberries.

Acetic Acid Vapor

Acetic acid is known for its preservative properties 122 and has been used extensively in foods such as pickles, salad dressing, tomato products, and mustards. Vaporized acetic acid has also shown biocidal effects for decontamination of fruits and vegetables. Researchers have demonstrated that fumigation with acetic acid vapor or vinegar vapor could control postharvest decay of fruits and vegetables such as apples, grapes, stonefruit (peaches, nectarines, and apricots), strawberries, oranges, kiwifruit, tomatoes, and coleslaw made from cabbage 123-127 . They also demonstrated that fumigation treatments with 242 ppm (v v) gaseous acetic acid in air for 24 hours at 22 C or for 12 hours at 45 C could reduce 3 to 5 log CFU g Salmonella Typhimurium, E. coli O157 H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on mung bean seed without significant reduction of seed germination rates 128 . Recently, Sapers et al. 43 evaluated the use of pressurized acetic acid vapor to decontaminate apples inoculated with E....


Anthocyanidins are red-blue pigments in plants, and they are especially high in fruits such as blueberries, bilberries, and other berries. Like many other flavon-oids, anthocyanidins exist in nature almost exclusively in their glycoside (anthocyanin) forms. Although the glycosides are found in many plants, the primary commercial source of anthocyanins is Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry), in which they occur at about 3 percent.185 Bilberries are eaten as food and have also been used medicinally to treat scurvy, urinary infections, diarrhea (due to their astringent characteristics), and varicose veins, as well to improve night vision and treat other eye


Pattern of bands that will vary in different organisms, depending on how closely they are related. Although we do not know in which particular genes the PCR bands originate, this does not matter in measuring relatedness. Diagnosis therefore relies on having a primer (or set of primers) that reliably give a band of a particular size with the target organism and give different bands with other organisms, even those closely related. RAPD results using such a primer are shown in Figure 23.13. Grey mold, due to Botrytis cinerea, is one of the most destructive infections of strawberries and also attacks other plants. Classical diagnosis involves culturing the fungus on nutrient agar. It is slow and difficult due to the presence on the plants of other harmless fungi, which often grow faster in culture. As can be seen, RAPD analysis clearly identifies the pathogens from other related fungi, including other species from the genus Botrytis.


Aside from being UV-protectants, in a number of species certain stilbenes act as phytoalexins. Resveratrol (6.24 trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxy-stilbene), its cis-isomer, as well as their glucosides and dehydrodimer trans-s-viniferin (6.25) are present in grape leaves and berries and play a role in the defense against gray rot caused by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea.


In contrast to field and storage fungi, yeasts require a high sugar content in their substrates, which limits their habitat. Certain leaves, pasture grasses, and flowers exude a sugary fluid that is a carbon source for the nonfermentative yeasts such as Aureobasidium (Pullularia) and Rhodotorula. Hundreds of millions of yeast colonies may be obtained per gram of leaf tissue. Berries and fruit also are commonly colonized. The soil is not a good habitat for yeasts unless it is in the vicinity of fruit trees. Yeasts are often cultured indoors, however.


Preliminary results indicate that the polysaccharides from mistletoe berries induced IL-6 and IFN-y and proliferation of CD4+ T helper cells (Stein et al., 1999c). Simultaneous addition of ML I or ML III with the polysaccharides may enhance the uptake of the thymidine-analogue BrdU in the DNA of cells as compared to the polysaccharides or ML alone. However, these responses showed strong interindividual differences, as some persons responded with enhanced proliferation, while others showed a suppression of polysaccharide-induced BrdU uptake by the ML, and others did not respond at all.

Saw Palmetto

Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) is a dwarf American palm native to the extreme southeastern United States. A lipidosterolic extract of its berries contains fatty acids (especially lauric acid), phytosterols, monocylglycerides, and polysaccharides. Fatty acids constitute more than 80 of the extract and are thought to be the most clinically effective component. It is widely used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). The berries themselves are less well absorbed than the extract and are therefore believed to be less effective.

Eye Problems

Glutathione, an antioxidant, is found to be especially lacking in cataracts as well as vitamin C, vitamin E, and folic acid. Vitamin A and the carotenoids are important for eye health, lutein a carotenoid is found in the lens. Foods containing these antioxidants are fruits and vegetables, spinach and other green leafy vegetables, broccoli, asparagus, legumes, avocados, oranges, dark berries, plums, and cherries. The herb bilberry is high in antioxidants, 240 to 480 mg of extract daily are recommended to protect the lens and retina, as are rosemary, turmeric, and ginger. Homeopathy remedies include Calcarea carbonica, Calcarea fluorica, Causticum, Natrum muriaticum, phosphorus, and Silicea. Take remedy according to symptom. Chinese medicine includes wolf-berry, chrysanthemum, and rumania. Nutrients recommended for macular degeneration are vitamin C 1 g, bioflavonoids, vitamin E 400 IU with mixed tocopherols, selenium 200 mcg, and the carotenoid complex. Foods containing antioxidants...


Bigfoot Sculpture

Uh-gob-uh, ugh-ugh-ugh, and uhu-uhuuhu. A strong, putrid odor often reported. Omnivorous (rodents, deer, roots, larvae, carrion, berries, grasses, clams, fishes, and vegetables). Searches for rodents by digging up rocks and piling them up. Splits rotted logs in search of grubs. May also pursue and kill deer. Kidnappings of humans, usually females, have been reported. Sometimes throws rocks at people. Shows curiosity about human activity. No apparent use of fire or tools. The population in the Pacific Northwest has been estimated as 1,500-2,000 adult individuals.

Substituting Foods

When highlighting this point, I say something like, So you're at a restaurant and you want to have a sweet dessert. Are you willing to have strawberries with whipped cream instead of the strawberry pie If you answer yes, then you just saved yourself about 300 to 400 calories and still enjoyed a dessert. Or I bring up the example of buying regular popcorn versus low-fat popcorn. The caloric difference for the same volume of popcorn is about 300 calories. Or consider the caloric difference between Breyer's 94 fat-free ice cream (90 calories per serving) compared to Breyer's regular ice cream (150 calories per serving). When offered a choice, substituting between similar foods can save hundreds of calories.

The Cames Approach

The scientific basis for the CAMES approach has already been described. As a brief review, the C stands for cutting the amount of food a person eats. Portion control is central to any weight reduction program. The A represents adding healthy items to a patient's diet. Encouraging patients to eat more fruit, vegetables, fiber, or drinking more water improves the patient's health and reduces the amount of calories ingested from unhealthful foods like trans-fats. The M stands for moving the patient's window of eating to an earlier time zone. TV advertising encourages food consumption at all hours whether or not the viewer is hungry. If a patient is going to have popcorn every night, suggest reducing certain other foods during dinnertime and eating the popcorn earlier in the evening, not just before going to bed. The E stands for eliminating certain foods from an individual's diet. The decision to stop eating certain foods must be the patient's, not the physician's. The S represents...


Behavior Travels singly or in small groups. May migrate south in the summer. Swift runner. Excellent swimmer. Incapable of speech but utters a piercing, modulated whistle. Hunts and eats reindeer and mountain goats. Catches or steals fishes from nets. Picks wild berries. Lives in caves. Allegedly raids settlements to steal food. Normally shy but occasionally picks fights with hunters or herders. Wears deerskin clothing, boots, and headband. Uses a knife, spear, and fire-steel, as well as a bow and feathered arrows in a quiver. Throws stones when otherwise unarmed. In the 1920s, Tatyana Zakharova and other Evenk villagers came across a Chuchunaa while gathering berries near Khoboyuto Creek. It was also picking and eating berries, but it stood up to a full height of nearly 7 feet when it saw them and ran away swiftly. The Chuchunaa was dressed in deerskin, had long arms, a small forehead, and jutting chin.


Has a deep voice. Normal language is telepathic, expressed with whispers or growls. Said to be able to learn English. Eats bananas, fish, shrimp, milk, squash, berries, sugarcane, and sweet potatoes. Lives in caves, lava tubes, hollow logs, or banana-leaf huts. Usually well dressed. Works at night to build fishponds, stoneworks, irrigation ditches, houses, and monuments. Carves petroglyphs. Enjoys playing games, music, dancing, singing, diving, and sports. Afraid of owls and dogs. Learned how to cook from humans.


The more unfamiliar grains include blue corn which is sweeter than yellow corn and has a higher content of protein and manganese. It can be substituted for yellow corn in any recipe. Bul-gur is whole wheat berries that are steamed and cracked. Bulgur is easier to chew, has a lighter texture, and needs less cooking than cracked wheat. Bulgur is the main ingredient in tabouli. Couscous, a tiny bead like pasta, is made from wheat and is easily prepared by simmering in water for one minute and letting stand covered for 10 minutes. The grain is available as whole wheat or refined. Amaranth is an ancient grain that has a high protein content and contains a variety of components including calcium, magnesium, and silicon. It is categorized by botanists as a C4 plant meaning it is superior in the process of photosynthesis, which makes it a very nutritious food. Amaranth can be cooked as a side dish, added to soups and stews, or popped like popcorn. The amount of amaranth in packaged products...