References

Panic Away

Panic Away Program

Get Instant Access

1 Shorvon SD. Status epilepticus: its clinical features and treatment in children and adults. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

2 DeLorenzo RJ, Garnett LK, Towne AR, et al. Comparison of status epilepticus with prolonged seizure episodes lasting from 10 to 29 minutes. Epilepsia 1999;40:164-9.

3 Lowenstein DH, Bleck T, Macdonald RL. It's time to revise the definition of status epilepticus. Epilepsia 1999;40:120-2.

4 Coeytaux A, Jallon P, Galobardes B, Morabia A. Incidence of status epilepticus in French-speaking Switzerland: (EPISTAR). Neurology 2000;55:693-7.

5 DeLorenzo RJ, Hauser WA, Towne AR, et al. A prospective, population-based epidemiologic study of status epilepticus in Richmond, Virginia. Neurology 1996;46:1029-35.

6 Hesdorffer DC, Logroscino G, Cascino G, Annegers JF, Hauser WA. Incidence of status epilepticus in Rochester, Minnesota, 1965-1984. Neurology 1998;50:735-41.

7 Knake S, Rosenow F, Vescovi M et al. Incidence of status epilepticus in adults in Germany: a prospective, population-based study. Epilepsia 2001;42:714-18.

8 Aicardi J, Chevrie JJ. Convulsive status epilepticus in infants and children. A study of 239 cases. Epilepsia 1970;11:187-97.

9 Pilke A, Partinen M, Kovanen J. Status epilepticus and alcohol abuse: an analysis of 82 status epilepticus admissions. Acta Neurol Scand 1984; 70:443-50.

10 Logroscino G, Hesdorffer DC, Cascino G, Annegers JF, Hauser WA. Short-term mortality after a first episode of status epilepticus. Epilepsia 1997; 38:1344-9.

11 Treiman DM, Walton NY, Kendrick C. A progressive sequence of electroencephalographic changes during generalized convulsive status epilepticus. Epilepsy Res 1990;5:49-60.

12 Garzon E, Fernandes RMF, Sakamoto AC. Serial EEG during human status epilepticus. Evidence for PLED as an ictal pattern. Neurology 2001;57: 1175-83.

13 Lothman E. The biochemical basis and pathophysiology of status epilepticus. Neurology 1990;40:13-23.

14 Simon RP. Physiologic consequences of status epilepticus. Epilepsia 1985;26(suppl 1):S58-66.

15 Brown JK, Hussain IH. Status epilepticus. I: Pathogenesis. Dev Med Child Neurol 1991;33:3-17.

16 Aminoff MJ, Simon RP. Status epilepticus. Causes, clinical features and consequences in 98 patients. Am J Med 1980;69:657-66.

17 Meldrum BS. Metabolic factors during prolonged seizures and their relation to nerve cell death. Adv Neurol 1983;34:261-75.

18 Siesjo BK, Ingvar M, Folbergrova J, Chapman AG. Local cerebral circulation and metabolism in bicuculline-induced status epilepticus: relevance for development of cell damage. Adv Neurol 1983;34: 217-30.

19 Benowitz NL, Simon RP, Copeland JR. Status epilepticus: divergence of sympathetic activity and cardiovascular response. Ann Neurol 1986;19: 197-9.

20 Young RS, Fripp RR, Yagel SK, Werner JC, McGrath G, Schuler HG. Cardiac dysfunction during status epilepticus in the neonatal pig. Ann Neurol 1985;18:291-7.

21 Meldrum B. Excitotoxicity and epileptic brain damage. Epilepsy Res 1991;10:55-61.

22 Olney JW, Collins RC, Sloviter RS. Excitotoxic mechanisms of epileptic brain damage. Adv Neurol 1986;44:857-77.

23 Sloviter RS. "Epileptic" brain damage in rats induced by sustained electrical stimulation of the perforant path, I. Acute electrophysiological and light microscopic studies. Brain Res Bull 1983;10:675-97.

24 Meldrum BS, Brierley JB. Prolonged epileptic seizures in primates. Ischaemic cell change and its relation to ictal physiological events. Arch Neurol 1973;28:10-17.

25 Nevander G, Ingvar M, Auer R, Siesjo BK. Status epilepticus in well-oxygenated rats causes neuronal necrosis. Ann Neurol 1985;18:281-90.

26 Kapur J, Macdonald RL. Rapid seizure-induced reduction of benzodiazepine and Zn2+ sensitivity of hippocampal dentate granule cell GABAA receptors. J Neurosci 1997;17:7532-40.

27 Walker MC, Tong X, Brown S, Shorvon SD, Patsalos PN. Comparison of single- and repeated-dose pharmacokinetics of diazepam. Epilepsia 1998;39:283-9.

28 Walker MC, Smith SJ, Shorvon SD. The intensive care treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in the UK. Results of a national survey and recommendations. Anaesthesia 1995;50:130-5.

29 Alldredge BK, Lowenstein DH. Status epilepticus related to alcohol abuse. Epilepsia 1993;34:1033-7.

30 van-Paesschen W, Bodian C, Maker H. Metabolic abnormalities and new-onset seizures in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients. Epilepsia 1995;36:146-50.

31 Dreifuss FE, Rosman NP, Cloyd JC, et al. A comparison of rectal diazepam gel and placebo for acute repetitive seizures. N Engl J Med 1998;338: 1869-75.

32 Scott RC, Besag FM, Neville BG. Buccal midazolam and rectal diazepam for treatment of prolonged seizures in childhood and adolescence: a randomised trial. Lancet 1999;353:623-6.

33 Alldredge BK, Gelb AM, Isaacs SM, et al. A comparison of lorazepam, diazepam, and placebo for the treatment of out-of-hospital status epilepticus. N Engl J Med 2001;345:631-7.

34 Leppik IE, Derivan AT, Homan RW, Walker J, Ramsay RE, Patrick B. Double-blind study of lorazepam and diazepam in status epilepticus. JAMA 1983;249:1452-4.

35 Treiman DM, Meyers PD, Walton NY, et al. A comparison of four treatments for generalized convulsive status epilepticus. Veterans Affairs Status Epilepticus Cooperative Study Group. N Engl J Med 1998;339: 792-8.

36 Browne TR. Paraldehyde, chlormethiazole, and lidocaine for treatment of status epilepticus. Adv Neurol 1983;34:509-17.

37 Robson DJ, Blow C, Gaines P, Flanagan RJ, Henry JA. Accumulation of chlormethiazole during intravenous infusion. Intensive Care Med 1984;10: 315-16.

38 Giroud M, Gras D, Escousse A, Dumas R, Venaud G. Use of injectable valproic acid in status epilepticus - a pilot study. Drug Invest 1993;5: 154-9.

39 Stecker MM, Kramer TH, Raps EC, O'Meeghan R, Dulaney E, Skaar DJ. Treatment of refractory status epilepticus with propofol: clinical and pharmacokinetic findings. Epilepsia 1998;39:18-26.

40 Treiman DM. Pharmacokinetics and clinical use of benzodiazepines in the management of status epilepticus. Epilepsia 1989;30(suppl 2):S4-10.

41 Schmidt D. Diazepam. In: Levy RH, Mattson RH, Meldrum BS, eds. Antiepileptic drugs. New York: Raven Press, 1995;705-24.

42 Remy C, Jourdil N, Villemain D, Favel P, Genton P. Intrarectal diazepam in epileptic adults. Epilepsia 1992;33:353-8.

43 Bell DM, Richards G, Dhillon S, et al. A comparative pharmacokinetic study of intravenous and intramuscular midazolam in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 1991;10:183-90.

44 Kumar A, Bleck TP. Intravenous midazolam for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Crit Care Med 1992;20:483-8.

45 Rivera R, Segnini M, Baltodano A, Perez V. Midazolam in the treatment of status epilepticus in children. Crit Care Med 1993;21:991-4.

46 Parent JM, Lowenstein DH. Treatment of refractory generalized status epilepticus with continuous infusion of midazolam. Neurology 1994;44: 1837-40.

47 Scott RC, Besag FM, Boyd SG, Berry D, Neville BG. Buccal absorption of midazolam: pharmacokinetics and EEG pharmacodynamics. Epilepsia 1998;39:290-4.

48 Rey E, Delaunay L, Pons G, et al. Pharmacokinetics of midazolam in children: comparative study of intranasal and intravenous administration. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1991;41:355-7.

49 Crawford TO, Mitchell WG, Snodgrass SR. Lorazepam in childhood status epilepticus and serial seizures: effectiveness and tachyphylaxis. Neurology 1987;37:190-5.

50 Shaner DM, McCurdy SA, Herring MO, Gabor AJ. Treatment of status epilepticus: a prospective comparison of diazepam and phenytoin versus phenobarbital and optional phenytoin. Neurology 1988;38:202-7.

51 Crawford TO, Mitchell WG, Fishman LS, Snodgrass SR. Very-high-dose phenobarbital for refractory status epilepticus in children. Neurology 1988;38:1035-40.

52 Krishnamurthy KB, Drislane FW. Relapse and survival after barbiturate anesthetic treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Epilepsia 1996;37: 863-7.

53 Wilder BJ, Ramsay RE, Willmore LJ, Feussner GF, Perchalski RJ, Shumate JBJ. Efficacy of intravenous phenytoin in the treatment of status epilepticus: kinetics of central nervous system penetration. Ann Neurol 1977;1:511-18.

54 Cranford RE, Leppik IE, Patrick B, Anderson CB, Kostick B. Intravenous phenytoin in acute treatment of seizures. Neurology 1979;29:1474-9.

55 Cloyd JC, Gumnit RJ, McLain-LWJ. Status epilepticus. The role of intravenous phenytoin. JAMA 1980;244:1479-81.

56 Leppik IE, Patrick BK, Cranford RE. Treatment of acute seizures and status epilepticus with intravenous phenytoin. Adv Neurol 1983;34:447-51.

57 Ramsay RE, DeToledo J. Intravenous administration of fosphenytoin: options for the management of seizures. Neurology 1996;46:S17-19.

58 Browne TR. Fosphenytoin (Cerebyx). Clin Neuropharmacol 1997;20:1-12.

59 Wood PR, Browne GP, Pugh S. Propofol infusion for the treatment of status epilepticus. Lancet 1988;i:480-1.

60 Mackenzie SJ, Kapadia F, Grant IS. Propofol infusion for control of status epilepticus. Anaesthesia 1990;45:1043-5.

61 De-Riu PL, Petruzzi V, Testa C, et al. Propofol anticonvulsant activity in experimental epileptic status. Br J Anaesth 1992;69:177-81.

62 Rasmussen PA, Yang Y, Rutecki PA. Propofol inhibits epileptiform activity in rat hippocampal slices. Epilepsy Res 1996;25:169-75.

63 Brown LA, Levin GM. Role of propofol in refractory status epilepticus. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:1053-9.

64 Hewitt PB, Chu DLK, Polkey CE, Binnie CD. Effect of propofol on the electrocorticogram in epileptic patients undergoing cortical resection. Br J Anaesth 1999;82:199-202.

65 Sneyd JR. Propofol and epilepsy. Br J Anaesth 1999;82:168-9.

66 Hanna JP, Ramundo ML. Rhabdomyolysis and hypoxia associated with prolonged propofol infusion in children. Neurology 1998;50:301-3.

67 Holtkamp M, Tong X, Walker MC. Propofol in subanesthetic doses terminates status epilepticus in a rodent model. Ann Neurol 2001;49: 260-3.

68 Young GB, Blume WT, Bolton CF, Warren KG. Anesthetic barbiturates in refractory status epilepticus. Can J Neurol Sci 1980;7:291-2.

69 Partinen M, Kovanen J, Nilsson E. Status epilepticus treated by barbiturate anaesthesia with continuous monitoring of cerebral function. Br Med J Clin Res Ed 1981;282:520-1.

70 Orlowski JP, Erenberg G, Lueders H, Cruse RP. Hypothermia and barbiturate coma for refractory status epilepticus. Crit Care Med 1984; 12:367-72.

71 Lowenstein DH, Aminoff MJ, Simon RP. Barbiturate anesthesia in the treatment of status epilepticus: clinical experience with 14 patients. Neurology 1988;38:395-400.

72 Walker MC, Howard RS, Smith SJ, Miller DH, Shorvon SD, Hirsch NP. Diagnosis and treatment of status epilepticus on a neurological intensive care unit. Q J Med 1996;89:913-20.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Kicking Fear And Anxiety To The Curb

Kicking Fear And Anxiety To The Curb

Kicking Fear And Anxiety To The Curb Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life And Success. Learn About Calming Down And Gain Power By Learning Ways To Become Peaceful And Create Amazing Results.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment