References

Panic Away

Panic Away Program

Get Instant Access

1 Shorvon SD. Status epilepticus: its clinical features and treatment in children and adults. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

2 DeLorenzo RJ, Garnett LK, Towne AR, et al. Comparison of status epilepticus with prolonged seizure episodes lasting from 10 to 29 minutes. Epilepsia 1999;40:164-9.

3 Lowenstein DH, Bleck T, Macdonald RL. It's time to revise the definition of status epilepticus. Epilepsia 1999;40:120-2.

4 Coeytaux A, Jallon P, Galobardes B, Morabia A. Incidence of status epilepticus in French-speaking Switzerland: (EPISTAR). Neurology 2000;55:693-7.

5 DeLorenzo RJ, Hauser WA, Towne AR, et al. A prospective, population-based epidemiologic study of status epilepticus in Richmond, Virginia. Neurology 1996;46:1029-35.

6 Hesdorffer DC, Logroscino G, Cascino G, Annegers JF, Hauser WA. Incidence of status epilepticus in Rochester, Minnesota, 1965-1984. Neurology 1998;50:735-41.

7 Knake S, Rosenow F, Vescovi M et al. Incidence of status epilepticus in adults in Germany: a prospective, population-based study. Epilepsia 2001;42:714-18.

8 Aicardi J, Chevrie JJ. Convulsive status epilepticus in infants and children. A study of 239 cases. Epilepsia 1970;11:187-97.

9 Pilke A, Partinen M, Kovanen J. Status epilepticus and alcohol abuse: an analysis of 82 status epilepticus admissions. Acta Neurol Scand 1984; 70:443-50.

10 Logroscino G, Hesdorffer DC, Cascino G, Annegers JF, Hauser WA. Short-term mortality after a first episode of status epilepticus. Epilepsia 1997; 38:1344-9.

11 Treiman DM, Walton NY, Kendrick C. A progressive sequence of electroencephalographic changes during generalized convulsive status epilepticus. Epilepsy Res 1990;5:49-60.

12 Garzon E, Fernandes RMF, Sakamoto AC. Serial EEG during human status epilepticus. Evidence for PLED as an ictal pattern. Neurology 2001;57: 1175-83.

13 Lothman E. The biochemical basis and pathophysiology of status epilepticus. Neurology 1990;40:13-23.

14 Simon RP. Physiologic consequences of status epilepticus. Epilepsia 1985;26(suppl 1):S58-66.

15 Brown JK, Hussain IH. Status epilepticus. I: Pathogenesis. Dev Med Child Neurol 1991;33:3-17.

16 Aminoff MJ, Simon RP. Status epilepticus. Causes, clinical features and consequences in 98 patients. Am J Med 1980;69:657-66.

17 Meldrum BS. Metabolic factors during prolonged seizures and their relation to nerve cell death. Adv Neurol 1983;34:261-75.

18 Siesjo BK, Ingvar M, Folbergrova J, Chapman AG. Local cerebral circulation and metabolism in bicuculline-induced status epilepticus: relevance for development of cell damage. Adv Neurol 1983;34: 217-30.

19 Benowitz NL, Simon RP, Copeland JR. Status epilepticus: divergence of sympathetic activity and cardiovascular response. Ann Neurol 1986;19: 197-9.

20 Young RS, Fripp RR, Yagel SK, Werner JC, McGrath G, Schuler HG. Cardiac dysfunction during status epilepticus in the neonatal pig. Ann Neurol 1985;18:291-7.

21 Meldrum B. Excitotoxicity and epileptic brain damage. Epilepsy Res 1991;10:55-61.

22 Olney JW, Collins RC, Sloviter RS. Excitotoxic mechanisms of epileptic brain damage. Adv Neurol 1986;44:857-77.

23 Sloviter RS. "Epileptic" brain damage in rats induced by sustained electrical stimulation of the perforant path, I. Acute electrophysiological and light microscopic studies. Brain Res Bull 1983;10:675-97.

24 Meldrum BS, Brierley JB. Prolonged epileptic seizures in primates. Ischaemic cell change and its relation to ictal physiological events. Arch Neurol 1973;28:10-17.

25 Nevander G, Ingvar M, Auer R, Siesjo BK. Status epilepticus in well-oxygenated rats causes neuronal necrosis. Ann Neurol 1985;18:281-90.

26 Kapur J, Macdonald RL. Rapid seizure-induced reduction of benzodiazepine and Zn2+ sensitivity of hippocampal dentate granule cell GABAA receptors. J Neurosci 1997;17:7532-40.

27 Walker MC, Tong X, Brown S, Shorvon SD, Patsalos PN. Comparison of single- and repeated-dose pharmacokinetics of diazepam. Epilepsia 1998;39:283-9.

28 Walker MC, Smith SJ, Shorvon SD. The intensive care treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in the UK. Results of a national survey and recommendations. Anaesthesia 1995;50:130-5.

29 Alldredge BK, Lowenstein DH. Status epilepticus related to alcohol abuse. Epilepsia 1993;34:1033-7.

30 van-Paesschen W, Bodian C, Maker H. Metabolic abnormalities and new-onset seizures in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients. Epilepsia 1995;36:146-50.

31 Dreifuss FE, Rosman NP, Cloyd JC, et al. A comparison of rectal diazepam gel and placebo for acute repetitive seizures. N Engl J Med 1998;338: 1869-75.

32 Scott RC, Besag FM, Neville BG. Buccal midazolam and rectal diazepam for treatment of prolonged seizures in childhood and adolescence: a randomised trial. Lancet 1999;353:623-6.

33 Alldredge BK, Gelb AM, Isaacs SM, et al. A comparison of lorazepam, diazepam, and placebo for the treatment of out-of-hospital status epilepticus. N Engl J Med 2001;345:631-7.

34 Leppik IE, Derivan AT, Homan RW, Walker J, Ramsay RE, Patrick B. Double-blind study of lorazepam and diazepam in status epilepticus. JAMA 1983;249:1452-4.

35 Treiman DM, Meyers PD, Walton NY, et al. A comparison of four treatments for generalized convulsive status epilepticus. Veterans Affairs Status Epilepticus Cooperative Study Group. N Engl J Med 1998;339: 792-8.

36 Browne TR. Paraldehyde, chlormethiazole, and lidocaine for treatment of status epilepticus. Adv Neurol 1983;34:509-17.

37 Robson DJ, Blow C, Gaines P, Flanagan RJ, Henry JA. Accumulation of chlormethiazole during intravenous infusion. Intensive Care Med 1984;10: 315-16.

38 Giroud M, Gras D, Escousse A, Dumas R, Venaud G. Use of injectable valproic acid in status epilepticus - a pilot study. Drug Invest 1993;5: 154-9.

39 Stecker MM, Kramer TH, Raps EC, O'Meeghan R, Dulaney E, Skaar DJ. Treatment of refractory status epilepticus with propofol: clinical and pharmacokinetic findings. Epilepsia 1998;39:18-26.

40 Treiman DM. Pharmacokinetics and clinical use of benzodiazepines in the management of status epilepticus. Epilepsia 1989;30(suppl 2):S4-10.

41 Schmidt D. Diazepam. In: Levy RH, Mattson RH, Meldrum BS, eds. Antiepileptic drugs. New York: Raven Press, 1995;705-24.

42 Remy C, Jourdil N, Villemain D, Favel P, Genton P. Intrarectal diazepam in epileptic adults. Epilepsia 1992;33:353-8.

43 Bell DM, Richards G, Dhillon S, et al. A comparative pharmacokinetic study of intravenous and intramuscular midazolam in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 1991;10:183-90.

44 Kumar A, Bleck TP. Intravenous midazolam for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Crit Care Med 1992;20:483-8.

45 Rivera R, Segnini M, Baltodano A, Perez V. Midazolam in the treatment of status epilepticus in children. Crit Care Med 1993;21:991-4.

46 Parent JM, Lowenstein DH. Treatment of refractory generalized status epilepticus with continuous infusion of midazolam. Neurology 1994;44: 1837-40.

47 Scott RC, Besag FM, Boyd SG, Berry D, Neville BG. Buccal absorption of midazolam: pharmacokinetics and EEG pharmacodynamics. Epilepsia 1998;39:290-4.

48 Rey E, Delaunay L, Pons G, et al. Pharmacokinetics of midazolam in children: comparative study of intranasal and intravenous administration. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1991;41:355-7.

49 Crawford TO, Mitchell WG, Snodgrass SR. Lorazepam in childhood status epilepticus and serial seizures: effectiveness and tachyphylaxis. Neurology 1987;37:190-5.

50 Shaner DM, McCurdy SA, Herring MO, Gabor AJ. Treatment of status epilepticus: a prospective comparison of diazepam and phenytoin versus phenobarbital and optional phenytoin. Neurology 1988;38:202-7.

51 Crawford TO, Mitchell WG, Fishman LS, Snodgrass SR. Very-high-dose phenobarbital for refractory status epilepticus in children. Neurology 1988;38:1035-40.

52 Krishnamurthy KB, Drislane FW. Relapse and survival after barbiturate anesthetic treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Epilepsia 1996;37: 863-7.

53 Wilder BJ, Ramsay RE, Willmore LJ, Feussner GF, Perchalski RJ, Shumate JBJ. Efficacy of intravenous phenytoin in the treatment of status epilepticus: kinetics of central nervous system penetration. Ann Neurol 1977;1:511-18.

54 Cranford RE, Leppik IE, Patrick B, Anderson CB, Kostick B. Intravenous phenytoin in acute treatment of seizures. Neurology 1979;29:1474-9.

55 Cloyd JC, Gumnit RJ, McLain-LWJ. Status epilepticus. The role of intravenous phenytoin. JAMA 1980;244:1479-81.

56 Leppik IE, Patrick BK, Cranford RE. Treatment of acute seizures and status epilepticus with intravenous phenytoin. Adv Neurol 1983;34:447-51.

57 Ramsay RE, DeToledo J. Intravenous administration of fosphenytoin: options for the management of seizures. Neurology 1996;46:S17-19.

58 Browne TR. Fosphenytoin (Cerebyx). Clin Neuropharmacol 1997;20:1-12.

59 Wood PR, Browne GP, Pugh S. Propofol infusion for the treatment of status epilepticus. Lancet 1988;i:480-1.

60 Mackenzie SJ, Kapadia F, Grant IS. Propofol infusion for control of status epilepticus. Anaesthesia 1990;45:1043-5.

61 De-Riu PL, Petruzzi V, Testa C, et al. Propofol anticonvulsant activity in experimental epileptic status. Br J Anaesth 1992;69:177-81.

62 Rasmussen PA, Yang Y, Rutecki PA. Propofol inhibits epileptiform activity in rat hippocampal slices. Epilepsy Res 1996;25:169-75.

63 Brown LA, Levin GM. Role of propofol in refractory status epilepticus. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:1053-9.

64 Hewitt PB, Chu DLK, Polkey CE, Binnie CD. Effect of propofol on the electrocorticogram in epileptic patients undergoing cortical resection. Br J Anaesth 1999;82:199-202.

65 Sneyd JR. Propofol and epilepsy. Br J Anaesth 1999;82:168-9.

66 Hanna JP, Ramundo ML. Rhabdomyolysis and hypoxia associated with prolonged propofol infusion in children. Neurology 1998;50:301-3.

67 Holtkamp M, Tong X, Walker MC. Propofol in subanesthetic doses terminates status epilepticus in a rodent model. Ann Neurol 2001;49: 260-3.

68 Young GB, Blume WT, Bolton CF, Warren KG. Anesthetic barbiturates in refractory status epilepticus. Can J Neurol Sci 1980;7:291-2.

69 Partinen M, Kovanen J, Nilsson E. Status epilepticus treated by barbiturate anaesthesia with continuous monitoring of cerebral function. Br Med J Clin Res Ed 1981;282:520-1.

70 Orlowski JP, Erenberg G, Lueders H, Cruse RP. Hypothermia and barbiturate coma for refractory status epilepticus. Crit Care Med 1984; 12:367-72.

71 Lowenstein DH, Aminoff MJ, Simon RP. Barbiturate anesthesia in the treatment of status epilepticus: clinical experience with 14 patients. Neurology 1988;38:395-400.

72 Walker MC, Howard RS, Smith SJ, Miller DH, Shorvon SD, Hirsch NP. Diagnosis and treatment of status epilepticus on a neurological intensive care unit. Q J Med 1996;89:913-20.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Emergency Panic Remedies

Emergency Panic Remedies

Eliminate Your Panic And Anxiety Attacks Instantly With These Proven Techniques! There’s
 very
 little
 in
 this 
world
 that 
is
 as 
frightening
 and
 uncomfortable
 as 
a panic
 attack. 

Once
 they
 start,
 panic
 attacks
 can
 send
 you
 spiraling
 out
 of control.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment