References Staut 1991

1 The medical works of Hippocrates. Trans Chadwick J, Mann WN. Oxford: Blackwell, 1950.

2 Celsus. De Medicina. Trans. Spencer WG. London: Heinemann, 1938.

3 Jackson SW. Galen - on mental disorders. J Hist Behav Sci 1969;5:365-84.

4 Lipowski ZJ. Delirium: acute brain failure in man. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1980.

5 Perez EL, Silverman M. Delirium: the often overlooked diagnosis. Int J Psychiatry Med 1984;14:181-9.

6 Trzepacz PT, Teague GB, Lipowski ZJ. Delirium and other organic mental disorders in a general hospital. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1985;7:101-6.

7 World Health Organization. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1992.

8 American Psychiatric Association. DSM-IV: diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.

9 World Health Organization. Mental disorders: glossary and guide to their classification in accordance with the ninth revision of the international classification of diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1978.

10 Tucker GJ. DSM-IV: proposals for revision of diagnostic criteria for delirium. Int Psychogeriatr 1991;3:197-207.

11 Gottlieb GL, Johnson J, Wanich C, et al. Delirium in the medically ill elderly: operationalizing the DSM-III criteria. Int Psychogeriatr 1991;3:181-96.

12 Macdonald AJ, Treloar A. Delirium and dementia: are they distinct? J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;44:1001-2.

13 McKeith IG, Perry RH, Fairbairn A, et al. Operational criteria for senile dementia of Lewy body type. Psychological Med 1992;22:911-22.

14 Levkoff SE, Evans D, Liptzin B, et al. Deirium, the occurrence and persistence of symptoms among elderly hospitalised patients. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:334-40.

15 Oakley DA. Animal awareness, consciousness and self-image. In: Oakley DA, ed. Brain and mind. London: Methuen, 1985:132-51.

16 Baddeley AD. Memory theory and memory therapy. In: Moffat M, ed. Clinical management of memory problems. London: Chapman & Hall, 1992, 4-31.

17 Levkoff S, Cleary P, Liptzin B, et al. Epidemiology of delirium: an overview of research issues and findings. Int Psychogeriatr 1991;3:149-69.

18 Folstein MF, Basset SS, Romanoski AJ, et al. The epidemiology of delirium in the community: the Eastern Baltimore Mental Health Survey. Int Psychogeriatr 1991;3:169-76.

19 Horvath TB, Siever LJ, Mohs RC, et al. Organic mental syndromes and disorders. In: Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ, eds. Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1989:599-641.

20 Gillick MR, Serrell NA, Gillick LS. Adverse consequences of hospitalisation in the elderly. Soc Sci Med 1982;16:1033-8.

21 Warshaw GA, Moore JT, Friedman SW, et al. Functional disability in the hospitalised elderly. JAMA 1982;248:847-50.

22 Johnson J, Sullivan E, Gottlieb E, et al. Delirium in elderly patients on internal medical services. J Am Geriatr Soc 1987;35:972.

23 Williams MA, Campbell EB, Raynor WJ, et al. Predictors of acute confusional states in hospitalised elderly patients. Res Nurs Health 1985; 8:31-40.

24 Erkinjuntti T, Wikstromm J, Palo J. Dementia among medical inpatients. Arch Intern Med 1986;146:193-6.

25 Francis J, Martin D, Kapoor WN. A prospective study of delirium in hospitalised elderly. JAMA 1990;263:1097-101.

26 Thomas RI, Cameron DJ, Fahs MC. A prospective study of delirium and prolonged hospital stay. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988;45:937-40.

27 O'Keefe S, Lavan J. The prognostic significance of delirium in older hospital patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:174-8.

28 Pompei P, Foreman M, Rudberg MA, et al. Delirium in hospitalised older persons: outcomes and predictors. J Am Geriatr Soc 1994;42:809-15.

29 Cameron DJ, Thomas RI, Mulvihill M, et al. Delirium: a test of the DSM III criteria on medical inpatients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1987;35:1007-10.

30 Rabins PV, Folstein MF. Delirium and dementia: diagnostic criteria and fatality rates. Br J Psychiatry 1982;140:149-53.

31 Francis J, Kapoor WN. Prognosis after hospital discharge of older medical patients with delirium. J Am Geriatr Soc 1992;40:601-6.

32 Inouye SK, Charpentier PA. Precipitating factors for delirium in hospitalised elderly persons. JAMA 1996;275:852-7.

33 Inouye SK. The dilemma of delirium: clinical and research controversies regarding diagnosis and evaluation of delirium in hospitalised elderly medical patients. Am J Med 1994;97:278-88.

34 Lipowski ZJ. Delirium: acute confusional states. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

35 Lipowski ZJ. Transient cognitive disorders (delirium, acute confusional states) in the elderly. Am J Psychiatry 1983;140:1426-36.

36 Sirosis F. Delirium: 100 cases. Can J Psychiatry 1988;33:375-8.

37 Blazer DG, Federspiel CF, Ray WA, et al. The risk of anticholinergic toxicity in the elderly: a study of prescribing practices in two populations. J Gerontol 1983;38:31-5.

38 Fordyce G. Five dissertations on fever. Boston: Bedlington and Ewes, 1823.

39 Mori E, Yamadori A. Acute confusional states and acute agitated delirium. Arch Neurol 1987;44:1139-43.

40 Santamaria J, Blesa R, Tolosa ES. Confusional syndrome in thalamic stroke. Neurology 1984;34:1618.

41 Ingvar DH. "Memory of the future": an essay on the temporal organisation of conscious awareness. Hum Neurobiol 1985;4:127-36.

42 Engel GL, Romano J. Delirium: a syndrome of cerebral insufficiency. J Chronic Dis 1959;9:260-77.

43 Markland ON. Electroencephalography in diffuse encephalopathies. J Clin Neurophysiol 1984;1:357-407.

44 Romano J, Engel GL. Physiologic and psychologic considerations of delirium. Med Clin North Am 1944;28:629-38.

45 Adams RD, Victor M. Principles of neurology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981:281.

46 Hemmingsen R, Vorstrup S, Clemmesen L, et al. Cerebral blood flow during delirium tremens and related clinical states studied with Xenon-133 inhalation tomography. Am J Psychiatry 1988;145:1384-90.

47 Trzepacz PT. The neuropathogensis of delirium: a need to focus our research. Psychosomatics 1994;35:374-91.

48 Perry EK, Perry RH. Acetylcholine and hallucinations: disease-related compared to drug-induced alterations in human consciousness. Brain and Cognition 1995;28:240-58.

49 Gibson GE, Peterson C, Sansone J. Decreases in amino acid and acetylcholine metabolism during hypoxia. J Neurochem 1981;37:192-201.

50 Perry EK, Johnson M, Kerwin JM, et al. Convergent cholinergic activities in aging and Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging 1992;13:393-400.

51 Perry EK, lrving D, Kerwin JM, et al. Cholinergic transmitter and neurotrophic activities in Lewy body dementia: similarity to Parkinson's and distribution from Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1993;7:69-79.

52 Broderick PA, Gibson GE. Dopamine and serotonin in rat striatum during in vivo hypoxic-hypoxia. Metab Brain Dis 1989;4:143-53.

53 Moskovitz C, Moses H, Klawans H. Levodopa-induced psychosis: a kindling phenomenon. Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:669.

54 Blass JP, Nolan KA, Black RS, et al. Delirium: phenomenology and diagnosis - a neurobiologic view. Int Psychogeriatr 1991;3:121-34.

55 Lishman WA. Organic psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 1987.

56 Rosen AM, Fox HA. Tests of cognition and their relationship to psychiatric diagnosis and demographic variables. J Clin Psychiatry 1986;47:495-8.

57 Hinton J, Withers E. The usefulness of clinical tests of the sensorium. Br J Psychiatry 1971;119:9-18.

58 Squire LR. Memory and brain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.

59 Litin EM. Mental reaction to trauma and hospitalisation in the aged. N Engl J Med 1956;162:1522-4.

60 Levin M. Toxic delirium precipitated by admission to hospital. J Nerv Ment Dis 1952;116:210-14.

61 Loftus EL, Schooler JW. Information processing conceptualisations of human cognition: past, present and future. In: Rubin BD, ed. Information and behavior. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1985, 225-50.

62 Mettler CC. History of medicine: a correlative text, arranged according to subjects. Philadelphia, PA: Blakiston, 1947.

63 Wolff HG, Curran D. Nature of delirium and allied states. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1956;75:62-6.

64 Farber IJ. Acute brain syndrome. Dis Nerv System 1959;20:296-9.

65 Simon A, Cahan RB. The acute brain syndrome in geriatric patients. Psychiatr Res Rep 1963;116:8-2l.

66 Morris GO, Singer MT. Sleep deprivation: the content of consciousness. J Nerv Ment Dis 1966;143:291-304.

67 Bleuler M, Willi J, Buhler HR. Akute psychische Begleiter scheinungen körperlicher Krankheiten. Stuttgart: Thieme, 1966.

68 Wolff HG, Curran D. Nature of delirium and allied states. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1935;33:1175-215.

69 Liptzin B, Levkoff SE. An empirical study of delirium subtypes. Br J Psychiatry 1992;161:843-45.

70 Mulligan I, Fairweather SA. Delirium - the geriatrician's perspective. In: Jacoby R, Oppenheimer C, eds. Psychiatry in the elderly. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997;507-26.

71 Victor M, Adams RD, Collins GH. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis, 1971.

72 Blank K, Perry S. Relationship of psychological processes during delirium to outcome. Am J Psychiatry 1984;141:843-7.

73 MacKenzie TB, Popkin MK. Stress response syndrome occurring after delirium. Am J Psychiatry 1980;137:1433-5.

74 Francis J, Kapoor WN. Acute mental change: when are head scans needed? Clin Res 1991;39:575.

75 Brenner RP. The electroencephalogram in altered states of consciousness. Neurol Clin 1985;2:615-31.

76 Leuchter FA, Spar JE, Walter DO, et al. Electroencephalographic spectra and coherence in the diagnosis of Alzheimer-type and multi-infarct dementia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1987;44:50-4.

77 Tomlinson BE. The structural and quantitative aspects of the dementias. In: Roberts PJ, ed. Biochemistry of dementia. Chichester: Wiley, 1980.

78 Ala TA, Yang KH, Sung JH, et al. Hallucinations and signs of parkinsonism help distinguish patients with dementia and cortical Lewy bodies from patients with Alzheimer's disease at presentation: a clinicopathological study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997;62:16-21.

79 McKeith I, Fairbairn A, Perry R, et al. Neuroleptic sensitivity in patients with senile dementia of Lewy body type. Br J Psychiatry 1992;305:673-7.

80 Van Praag GE. About the impossible concept of schizophrenia. Compr Psychiatry 1976;17:l-97.

81 Newmark CS, Raft D, Toomet T, et al. Diagnosis of schizophrenia: pathognomic signs or symptom clusters. Compr Psychiatry 1975;16: 155-63.

82 Carlson GA, Goodwin FK. The stages of mania: a longitudinal analysis of the manic episode. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1973;28:221-8.

83 Van Sweden B. Disturbed vigilance in mania. Biol Psychiatry 1986;21: 311-13.

84 Mentzos S, Lyrakos A, Tsiolis A. Akute Virwirrtheitszustande. Nervenarzt 1971;42:10-17.

85 Taylor MA, Abrams R. The phenomenology of mania. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1973;29:520-2.

86 La Rue A, Spar J, Hill CD. Cognitive impairment in late-life depression: clinical correlates and treatment implications. J Affect Dis 1986;11:179-84.

87 Kopelman MD. Amnesia: organic and psychogenic. Br J Psychiatry 1987; 150:428-42.

88 Francis J. Delirium in older patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1992;40:829-38.

89 Britton A, Russell R. Multidisciplinary team interventions for delirium in patients with chronic cognitive impairment. In: Cochrane Collaboration. Cochrane Library. Issue 2. Oxford: Update Software, 2002.

90 McCartney JR, Palmteer RN. Assessment of cognitive deficit in geriatric patients: a study of physician behavior. J Am Geriatr Soc 1985;33:467.

91 Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. "Mini-Mental state". J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:189-98.

92 Anthony JC, Le Resche L, Niaz U, et al. Limits of the "Mini-Mental State" as a screening test for dementia and delirium among hospital patients. Psychol Med 1982;12:397-408.

93 Moore DP. Rapid treatment in critically ill patients. Am J Psychiatry 1977;134:1431-2.

94 Settle EC, Ayd FJ. Haloperidol: a quarter century of experience. J Clin Psychiatry 1983;44:440-8.

95 Byrne EJ. Acute and sub-acute confusional state (delirium) in later life. In: Norman IJ, Redfern SJ, eds. Mental health care for elderly people. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1997;175-82.

96 Ballard C, Grace J, McKeith I, et al. Neuroleptic sensitivity in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease. Lancet 1998;351:1032-3 (letter).

97 McKeith IG, Galasko D, Wilcock GK, et al. Lewy body dementia -diagnosis and treatment. Br J Psychiatry 1995;167:709-17.

98 McKeith IG, Grace JB, Walker Z, et al. Rivastigmine in the treatment of dementia with Lewy bodies: preliminary findings from an open trial. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2000;15:387-92.

99 British National Formulary (BNF 44). London: British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society, 2002.

100 Forsman A, Ohman R. Applied pharmacokinetics of haloperidol in man. Curr Ther Res 1977;21:396-411.

101 Menza MA, Murray GB, Holmes VF, et al. Decreased extrapyramidal symptoms with intravenous haloperidol. J Clin Psychiatry 1987;48: 278-80.

102 Wilt JL, Minnema AM, Johnson MD, et al. Torsade de pointes associated with the use of intravenous haloperidol. Ann Intern Med 1993;119: 391-4.

103 American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with delirium. Washington, DC: APA, 1999.

104 Sipahimalani A, Masand PS. Use of risperidone in delirium: case reports. Ann Clin Psychiatry 1997;9:105-7.

105 Foy A, Drinkwater V, March S, et al. Confusion after admission to hospital in elderly patients using benzodiazepines. Br Med J 1986;293:1072.

106 Dubin WR, Weiss KJ, Dorn JM. Pharmacotherapy of psychiatric emergencies. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1986;6:210-22.

107 Misra P. Hepatic encephalopathy. Med Clin North Am 1981;65:209-26.

Unraveling Alzheimers Disease

Unraveling Alzheimers Disease

I leave absolutely nothing out! Everything that I learned about Alzheimer’s I share with you. This is the most comprehensive report on Alzheimer’s you will ever read. No stone is left unturned in this comprehensive report.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment