Diagnosis

The diagnosis of ischaemic optic neuropathy is based on the visual symptoms and signs. The investigations indicated in all cases are a complete blood count, ESR, fibrinogen level, and carotid non-invasive studies, including transorbital Doppler evaluation. A cardiac evaluation, including two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiogram, Holter monitor, and magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck and/or CT angiography are indicated when ischaemic optic neuropathy is thought to be embolic. In non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy tests should also be directed towards the detection of associated systemic vascular disease such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidaemia or a variety of coagulopathies, for example, those caused by decreased concentrations of protein C, protein S, or antithrombin III.91 In giant cell arteritis-associated ischaemic optic neuropathy with a high ESR and fibrinogen level, a temporal artery biopsy is mandatory.

Diabetes Sustenance

Diabetes Sustenance

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Dealing With Diabetes The Healthy Way. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Learning How Nutritional Supplements Can Control Sugar Levels.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment