This encephalitis may be contracted from woodlands in Scandinavia through to northern Greece and the former Yugoslavia. Increasing numbers of cases are being reported from Austria. The virus is maintained in small woodland mammals and transmitted to people who enter the forest for recreation or work and are bitten by Ixodes ticks. There is a biphasic course with an initial flu-like illness, followed within two weeks by mild meningitis or encephalitis, perhaps with muscle weakness. Management is symptomatic and recovery is usually complete. Diagnosis is serological. Russian spring-summer encephalitis is a similar, more severe condition.
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