Tumour spread and staging

Many patients have cervical lymph node metastasis at presentation or early in the course. Distant metastasis (liver, lung, mediastinum, and skin) develops in about one-third of patients {1601,1637}. Histopathology

Some LEC show a pure growth pattern, indistinguishable from LEC of other sites. (see Chapter 2 on Tumours of the Nasopharynx). In about half of the cases, there is a component of squamous cell carcinoma that accounts for 10-75% of the entire tumour {1601}. The overlying epithelium can show carcinoma-in-situ.

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