The typical carcinoid (TC) is the least common of the neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx with only 42 cases recorded as of 2005 {2420}. It is three times more common in men and most patients are between 45-80 years of age (average 64 years) at diagnosis {738, 2419}.

Table 3.4 Classification of neuroendocrine tumours of the larynx.


A. Typical carcinoid


Carcinoid, well differentiated (Grade I) neuroendocrine carcinoma

B. Atypical carcinoid1

Malignant carcinoid, moderately differentiated (Grade II) neuroendocrine carcinoma, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma1

Small cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine type2

Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, poorly differentiated (Grade III) neuroendocrine carcinoma

D. Combined small cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine type, with non-small cell carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma,etc.]

Combined small cell carcinoma, composite small cell carcinoma

E. Paraganglioma

Non-chromaffin paraganglioma

1Some atypical carcinomas may fulfill the diagnostic criteria of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of lung

2Not all small cell carcinomas of the larynx will show neuroendocrine differentiation

Epidemiology For Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Fig. 3.30 Typical carcinoid. Typical carcinoid of epiglottis composed of small trabeculae and clusters of cells lying in the lamina propria. The overlying squamous mucosa is intact and free of atypia and/or dys-plasia.

Fig. 3.31 Typical carcinoid. A Observe the uniform cells without nucleoli. Mitoses and necrosis are not seen. B Typical carcinoid with spindle cell component. The spindle cells are uniform and free of mitoses. There is no nuclear molding or necrosis. C The cells are strongly positive for chromogranin.

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