Fig. 4.14 A Acanthosis. Hyperplastic epithelium with thickened stratum spinosum. B Basal cell hyperplasia. Increase in progenitor compartment without dysplasia. C Mild dysplasia. Basal cell hyperplasia with relatively mild cytological change confined to lower third of epithelium.

graph architectural disturbance extending into the middle third of the epithelium with sufficient cytologic atypia is upgraded from moderate to severe dysplasia.

Carcinoma in-situ

The theoretical concept of carcinoma in-situ is that malignant transformation has occurred but invasion is not present. It is not possible to recognize this morphologically. The following is recommended for the diagnosis of carcinoma in-situ: full thickness or almost full thickness architectural abnormalities in the viable cellular layers accompanied by pronounced cyto-logic atypia. Atypical mitotic figures and abnormal superficial mitoses are commonly seen in carcinoma in-situ.

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