References

Abel, N O J and Blaikie P M (1990) 'Land degradation, stocking rates and conservation policies in the communal rangelands of Botswana and Zimbabwe', ODI Pastoral Development Network, Paper 29a, ODI, London Amalgamated Banks of South Africa (ABSA) (2002) Game Ranching Profitability in Southern Africa, 2002 edition, The SA Financial Sector Forum Anderson, H J (2003) 'An econometric analysis of the wildlife market in South Africa', Master's thesis, University of Cape Town Ashley, C and Barnes, J...

Early Colonial Innovation

In 1656, within four years of establishing the Dutch East India Company station, Jan van Riebeeck gave instructions to regulate hunting at the Cape (Brynard, 1977). Early measures were introduced to conserve the southern Cape forests around Plettenberg Bay from 1811 because of their value to the British navy. By the 1830s rapid deforestation in the British colonies in India, Africa and Mauritius was leading to more broadly based conservation awareness (Grove, 1987). By the mid-19th century...

Policy and Legislation for Commercial Wildlife Production

The emergence of policies and legislation in South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe that devolved rights over wildlife to landowners was a necessary but not sufficient condition for the development of commercial wildlife production. For these three countries, the starting point for policy change was a general appreciation that wildlife and the area of wildlife habitat outside the state-protected areas was declining. In Namibia, the first legislation that granted landowners user rights over certain...

Land Distribution and Racial Equality

Reviews of commercial wildlife production typically focus on its ecological and economic performance (Hill, 1994) and only deal peripherally with the critical issue of racially equitable distribution of land (see Bothma, 2002). The commercial sector has undoubtedly made a substantial contribution to the conservation of wildlife and has the potential to do so in the future. In addition, it has clearly contributed to the growth of wildlife-based tourism in each of the countries by increasing the...

Managing Biological Reserves

Parks and reserves have had a dual purpose almost from their inception and in southern Africa at least since the turn of the 20th century. They are areas reserved to conserve nature, especially Africa's spectacular megafauna, and for outdoor recreation. This is indicated clearly in the documents covering their creation, such as the provisions of Cecil Rhodes' will in 1902 and the legislation bringing many of the areas into existence and defining their purpose. Development and management of the...

Risk and the Status of Markets for Wildlife Products

It is important to note that the policy and legislative changes discussed above were necessary but not sufficient for landholders to start investing and managing wildlife. For wildlife to become a viable land use it was essential that there were markets for the wildlife goods and services produced by private landholders. Thus, although less directly dependent on primary rangeland production than livestock, it has been that argued that wildlife producers are highly exposed to another exogenous...

Economic Performance

The economic performance of CBNRM has been mixed and patchy. Some communities in some countries of the region have been able to generate considerable income from wildlife and tourism. However, the income has rarely reached households in significant amounts. The results of CBNRM in terms of economic performance are as follows. CBNRM Has Generated Income for Communities with High-value Wildlife and Tourism Assets Communities with high-value wildlife and other high-value tourism assets are able to...