Fat Burning Soup Recipes
Much of the cell's contents is a watery soup flavored with small molecules (e.g., simple sugars, amino acids, vitamins) and ions (e.g., sodium, chloride, calcium ions). The locations and concentrations of small molecules and ions within the cell are controlled by numerous proteins inserted in cellular membranes. These pumps, transporters, and ion channels move nearly all small molecules and ions into or out of the cell and its organelles (Chapter 7). Certain small molecules (monomers) in the cellular soup can be joined to form polymers through repetition of a single type of chemical-linkage reaction (see Figure 2-11). Cells produce three types of large polymers, commonly called macromolecules polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. Sugars, for example, are the monomers used to form
A prerequisite to pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamic studies is the availability of a sufficiently selective and sensitive assay. The assay must be capable of detecting and accurately quantifying the therapeutic protein in the presence of a complex soup of 'contaminant' molecules characteristic of tissue extracts body fluids. As described in Chapter 7, specific proteins are usually detected and quantified either via immunoassay or bioassay. Additional analytical approaches occasionally used include liquid chromatography (e.g. HPLC) or the use of radioactively labelled protein.
In earlier chapters I examined the action of salt on the texture of foods without discussing its taste. Salt is important because it increases the ionic strength of aqueous solutions, making it easier for odorant molecules to separate themselves from food. This is why unsalted soup has no flavor and why adding salt amplifies its odor, which is an important part of flavor. Sodium chloride is also a taste molecule that stimulates the papillary receptors. Does it have other virtues from the point of view of flavor Does it really bring out the flavor of a dish, as some maintain
Oat p-glucan is already added to some products, mostly cereal products. The mouth feel of oat products is determined by the unbranched polysac-charide, p-glucan, which also significantly influences the flavour release. The special feature of p-glucan is that it forms highly viscous water solutions. The viscosity of food is known to modify the perception of tastes even though the composition of the thickener has been suggested to have a greater effect on the perception of flavours than the viscosity.95-98 A negative correlation has been reported between the intensities of flavour attributes and the viscosity of oat p-glucan-enriched soups.99 Factors affecting consumers' willingness to use beverages and ready-to-eat frozen soups containing oat P-glucan have been studied in Finland, France and Sweden.106 The presence of a health claim (concerning either cholesterol or glucose) significantly increased the perceived benefit and willingness of the consumers to use the soups and beverages...
The sensory properties of P-glucan, especially its high viscosity, influence the sensory quality of the products. Positive health effects of products may not guarantee that the product is chosen repeatedly if its sensory quality is not adequate. Taste pleasantness has been found to be the most important factor affecting food choice of novel foods and food choices overall.107-109 Their good viscosity-forming properties make P-glucans potential alternatives as thickening agents in different food applications, e.g. ice creams, sauces and salad dressings.110 Compared with other thickening agents, oat gum was less viscous than xanthan and guar at 0.5 , but slightly more viscous than locust bean gum at the same concentration.111 To make the daily consumption of the FDA-recommended four portions of 0.75 g P-glucan feasible, new types of P-glucan-containing foods need to be developed in addition to cereal products where P-glucan is an intrinsic component. One option for these new products is...
Humans have utilized carotenoids as food colors for centuries saffron, pepper, leaves, and red palm oil are some of the most used pigments. These products comprise mixtures of pigments and other frequently unidentified substances natural sources of carotenoids have persisted through the years and new ones have been introduced. As previously mentioned, carotenoids have very important biological activities and their use as food and feed is common today and recommended largely due to their vitamin A and antioxidant activities, very important for the maintenance of body health. However, carotenoids are lipids and for their application in food industry the introduction of different presentations (e.g., colloidal preparations, complexes with proteins) has been necessary for use in oily (e.g., margarine, butter) or aqueous media (e.g., beverages, canned soups) (Table 7.12).109
The process of natural selection, which Darwin once summarized as multiply, vary, let the strongest live and the weakest die. Yet, Darwin's theory could not readily explain behaviors such as altruism, particularly in cases where the altruistic organism died in the process. For example, Darwin was puzzled by a group of insects that produced no descendants. How could a whole caste of ants be sterile He vaguely suspected that it had something to do with the survival of the whole family of ants, all of the castes. Darwin likened it to making a well-flavored soup where the individual contributions are lost, although he worried that his failure to explain the phenomenon would be fatal to his whole theory.
Ultraviolet radiation from the sun, together with lightning discharges, caused the gases in the primeval atmosphere to react, forming simple organic compounds. These dissolved in the primeval oceans and continued to react, forming what is sometimes referred to as the primitive soup . The primitive soup contained amino acids, sugars, and nucleic acid bases among other randomly synthesized molecules (Fig. 20.01). Further reactions formed polymers and these associated, eventually forming globules. Ultimately, these evolved into the first primitive cells. This theory of the origin of life was put forward by the Russian biochemist Alexander Oparin in the 1920s. Charles Darwin himself had actually proposed that life might have started in a warm little pond provided with ammonia and other necessary chemicals. However, it was Oparin who outlined all the necessary steps and realized the critical point life evolved before there was any oxygen in the air. Oxygen is highly reactive and would have...
Several possible schemes have been suggested for the first carbon dioxide fixation reactions. One scheme involves iron catalyzed insertion of CO2 into sulfur derivatives of those carboxylic acids still found today as metabolic intermediates (e.g., acetic acid, pyruvic acid, succinic acid, etc.). These early reactions would have occurred on the surface of iron sulfide minerals buried underground, rather than in a primeval soup. This leaves open the question of where such organic acids came from originally. One possibility is that they resulted from a Miller type synthesis, as described above. More radical is the suggestion that the first organic molecules were derived directly from carbon monoxide plus hydrogen sulfide. It has been demonstrated that a mixed FeS NiS catalyst can convert carbon monoxide (CO) plus methane thiol (CH3SH) into a thioester (CH3-CO-SCH3), which then hydrolyses into acetic acid. Inclusion of catalytic amounts of selenium allows conversion of CO plus H2S alone...
Drinking with a meal should be minimized, and even eliminated if possible. Drink no more than 1 cup of liquid, room temperature or warmer, and neither acidic nor alkaline (such as water). The liquid in a soup is of course okay and is not considered something to be avoided.
More than 60 species of oregano are used as spices, and there are great differences on the contents of aromatic compounds according to growing place for example between the taste of European oregano and Mexican oregano. Mexican type has a pungent flavor and it is a popular herb in Mexican cuisine in pizzas and in barbecue dressings. European type is used in meat, sausages, salads, stewings, dressings and in soups. Already in ancient times, before the cultivation of hop started, oregano was used for seasoning of beer.
A mild-tasting foodstuff cooked fish for example, is not seasoned as strongly as meat or salmon, which has a natural strong flavor. A cold dish needs always more herbs than a warm one, and a frozen one the most. Soups, which are eaten as such, need always less herbs than stuffings and dressings, in which herbs are used to add the flavor of the basic foodstuff. It is good to remember that oregano and marjoram have stronger aroma when dried compared with the fresh ones. Two teaspoons of fresh herb correspond 1 4 teaspoon of the dried one. Sugar and salt may enhance the flavor of the herb. The fresh herb is best to add just before serving, since the aromatic substances do not stand high temperatures they evaporate easily or get destroyed or change in flavor.
These carbohydrates were first isolated from chicory root and are unique storage carbohydrates that occur naturally in numerous common fruits and vegetables and, thus, have always been part of the human diet. The average consumption in the United States is 1 to 4 g, whereas at Europe is 3 to 11 g day. Onion is an important source a typical onions soup contains 6 to 18 g of inulin and oligofructose per serving. Other sources are garlic, wheat, bananas, and artichokes. Today, industrial production is based on the synthesis starting with sucrose, or it is obtained as a natural extract from chicory roots. The roots of the Cichorium intybus plant contain approximately 15 to 20 inulin and 5 to 10 oligofructose. Inulin and oligofructose are not digested and have low caloric values thus, they are suitable for use in diabetic foods.
PEF research had been mostly focused on the inactivation of microorganisms suspended in foods, including semisolid and liquid foods such as pea soup, milk, liquid eggs, and juices, particularly orange and apple juices. Sitzmann 67 obtained a 3 log10 reduction of native microbiota for freshly squeezed orange juice using a continuous PEF process with an electric field of 15kV cm. There was no significant change in quality. Zhang et al. 68 found that total aerobic counts of reconstituted orange juice were reduced 3- to 4-log10 cycles when treated with an integrated PEF pilot plant system operating at less than 32 kV cm. Raso et al. 69 investigated PEF inactivation of ascospores and vegetative cells of Zygosaccharomyces bailii suspended in apple, orange, pineapple, cranberry, and grape juices. Two pulses of 32 to 36.5kV cm decreased the population of vegetative cells or ascospores 3.5 to 5log10 cycles for each fruit juice studied. Evrendilek et al. 70 treated fresh apple juice inoculated...
There are really three unsettling questions that pose themselves from this demonstration. First, where in the body is all that metallic iron accumulating Second, do the producers of the show really think metallic iron is a good thing to eat And third, what forms do most of the other vitamins and minerals take in other enriched foods The supplementation of metallic iron can be detected by a strong magnet, but the other toxic supplement forms cannot be similarly pulled out of the cereal soup in this demonstration and also be properly exposed. When you realize that these inorganic, inedible forms of common minerals are the cheapest to produce and to add to foods, you should seriously consider never eating an enriched food again. Eat fresh foods as close to their natural state as possible, and supplement their deficiencies intelligently in the fashion discussed later in this chapter.
A further human study in Hiroshima and Nagasaki showed no significant association between reported consumption of soy and breast cancer risk.26 The 34,759 women in the Life Span Study cohort in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who were alive at the time the atomic bombs were dropped and therefore exposed to radiation, completed dietary questionnaires in 1969-1970 or 1979-1981 and were followed until 1993. Among the 19 foods examined, the only statistically significant associations between breast cancer risk and diet were an increase in risk with increasing consumption of pickled vegetables and a decrease in risk with an increasing consumption of dried fish. These associations may be due to chance because of the large number of comparisons and because no plausible explanation can be given for pickled vegetables. There was no significant association between tofu or miso soup and reduction of breast cancer risk. The radiation exposure from the 1945 atomic bombs was a potential confounder of any...
A less stressful test of mental speed is the Speed of Comprehension Test, ( 3 in which the person indicates as fast as possible whether simple sentences are true or false (e.g. tomato soup is a liquid, grapes are people). There are four parallel versions, and the test can be given auditorily for patients who cannot read.
A complex medium contains a variety of ingredients such as meat juices and digested proteins, making what might be viewed as a tasty soup for microbes. Although a specific amount of each ingredient is in the medium, the exact chemical composition of these ingredients can be highly variable. One common ingredient is peptone. This is protein taken from any of a variety of sources that has been hydrolyzed to amino acids and short peptides by treatment with enzymes, acids, or alkali. Extracts, which are the water-soluble components of a substance, are also used. For example, beef extract is a water extract of lean meat and provides vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. A commonly used complex medium, nutrient broth, consists of only 5 grams of peptone and 3 grams of beef extract per liter of distilled water. If agar is added, then nutrient agar results.
A noxious stimulus such as surgery produces afferent discharges in A + C fibers and the release of mediators in the periphery termed the 'inflammatory soup'. Sensitization of high-threshold nociceptors occurs, and this process is termed primary hyperalgesia (i.e. increased pain intensity within the injury in response to a painful stimulus). Afferent transmission to the dorsal horn results in the phenomenon of 'wind-up' and central sensitization through an action on W-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors leading to calcium influx and production of nitric oxide. This central process is reflected in the periphery by secondary hyperalgesia, which is an area of increased sensitivity to stimuli in the undamaged area surrounding the injured tissue. Sensitization is associated with 'clinical' pain and manifested as spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, and allodynia.
Drinking too little fluid can make you feel tired and can contribute to urinary tract infections and constipation, both of which are common problems for people with MS. However, many people affected by MS restrict their fluid intake. Therefore, it is very important to drink enough fluids or liquids. The recommendation is for eight glasses a day. There is no need to drink it all at once. In fact, it is better to divide it up and have some in the morning, some midmorn-ing, some midday, some in the afternoon, some in the evening, some late evening, and some if you are up at night. Water is the best choice. It has no calories and will not put on weight diet soda, seltzer, plain tea, and black coffee are other calorie-free sources of fluid. Sweet drinks like soda, sweetened iced teas, juices, and juice drinks will add calories. Milk, milk shakes, puddings, gelatin-based desserts, soups, sorbets, and ice cream also count as fluids.
In parts of the far east algae have been used as vegetables in soups and salads since ancient times. In France they serve mainly as a source of iodine and fertilizer and as gelatinizing or texturing additives. Although eleven species of algae were recently accepted as vegetables by the French health authorities, their chemical composition and metabolism are poorly understood. Analysis of the fibers they contain nonetheless has illuminated the sources of their nutritional value.
Diarrhea is the accumulation of too much water in the large intestine that the intestinal walls fail to absorb. The immediate concern is replacing lost fluids in order to prevent dehydration. The best way to do this is by eating thick starchy soups and cereals. Eating frequently leads to a faster recovery.
For thousands of years, humans have been collecting seaweeds for food. People in Japan began cultivating seaweeds for food nearly 300 years ago. Today, about 10 percent of the Japanese diet is seaweeds. Among the most popular of these seaweeds is nori, a red alga from the genus Porphyra. Nori is used in soups, salads, and sushi, shown in Figure 25-19. More than half a million tons of nori are harvested each year. Porphyra has also been used for hundreds of years by people in Great Britain and is known there as laverbread. Kombu, made from kelps of the genus Laminaria, is another staple in Asian diets. More than 10 million tons of these kelps are harvested annually.
Aromas are the stars of the food industry Many firms produce and sell them to the large food processing conglomerates that make yogurts, soups, sauces, and so on. Nonetheless, foods that are aromatic and little else please only the nose, for they are lacking in taste hence the interest in taste molecules, still poorly understood. Do these molecules exert the same effect in foods as in water solution, where their properties have long been studied At the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Laboratoire de Recherches sur les Ar mes, in Dijon, Christian Salles, Erwan Engel, and Sophie Nicklaus studied this question in connection with goat cheese.
The salt taste resulted from the effect of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chlorides as well as of sodium phosphate. A part of the bitter taste came from calcium and magnesium chlorides, although it was partially masked by sodium chloride mixtures and by phosphates. As for the sweet and umami tastes (the latter caused by monosodium glutamate, widely used in commercial soups and sauces), they were so weak that the researchers were unable to associate them with any of the hydrosoluble compounds tested.
No one looks forward to the cold season when many of us come down with a sore throat, the sniffles, and a cough and feel utterly dreadful. A lot of chicken soup and TLC usually is the cure. Chicken soup is not a drug but it does contain a mucous-thinning amino acid called cysteine and is considered grandma's remedy for the common cold. Actually, time is the best cure and most people feel better in 7 to 10 days with or without chicken soup.
Many patients try home remedies to battle the rhinovirus, however these don't affect the virus. Instead, they may help ease the symptoms of the cold. Home remedies include rest, vitamin C, mega doses of other vitamins, and, of course, chicken soup. Vitamin C and mega doses of other vitamins have not been proven effective against the common cold.
However, for assessing exposure to engineered nanoparticles we have a major confounding factor in most workplaces - that of the soup of ultrafine particles found in ambient aerosols23 that will penetrate into the workplace to differing degrees, dependent upon the ventilation arrangements at each workplace. Possible methods of discriminating between exposure to engineered nanoparticles and to ambient ultrafine particles will be discussed later.
A revolution in the study of bacterial evolution was launched by Carl Woese (b. 1928) at the University of Illinois (Urbana). He developed an empirical framework for the natural classification of microbes based on comparisons of ribosomal RNA sequences. In doing so, he offered a radical revision of the history of life on earth. Educated in biophysics at Yale, Woese had two complementary interests comparing genetic systems to unravel microbial genealogies, and using genealogies to understand the evolution of the genetic system itself.118 His aim was to understand how the complex mechanism for translating nucleic acids into the amino acid sequences of proteins had evolved. Chemists led by Stanley Miller's experiments of 1953 showed how certain amino acids might have been synthesized in an abiotic soup billions of years ago. How the amino acid sequences of proteins and the nucleotide sequences of DNA and RNA, which specify those sequences, had evolved and came together in the appropriate...
For the press and the public, the discovery of the archaebacteria was a momentous event It touched on the age old concern of where we came from. As the first organisms, however, this universal ancestor contradicted biochemists' assumptions about the conditions in which life first emerged on earth. The leading theory had long held that life began when lightning activated molecules in the atmosphere, which then reacted chemically with one another. The atmosphere then deposited those compounds in the oceans, where they continued to react to produce a warm soup of organic molecules. Darwin had said little about the origins of life, except this famous note in a letter to Joseph Hooker in 1871, But if (and oh what a big if ) we could conceive in some warm little pond with all sorts of ammonia and phosphoric salts, light, heat, electricity and etc., present that a protein compound was chemically formed, ready to undergo still more complex changes. 127 The SSU rRNA tree seemed to point to a...
The more unfamiliar grains include blue corn which is sweeter than yellow corn and has a higher content of protein and manganese. It can be substituted for yellow corn in any recipe. Bul-gur is whole wheat berries that are steamed and cracked. Bulgur is easier to chew, has a lighter texture, and needs less cooking than cracked wheat. Bulgur is the main ingredient in tabouli. Couscous, a tiny bead like pasta, is made from wheat and is easily prepared by simmering in water for one minute and letting stand covered for 10 minutes. The grain is available as whole wheat or refined. Amaranth is an ancient grain that has a high protein content and contains a variety of components including calcium, magnesium, and silicon. It is categorized by botanists as a C4 plant meaning it is superior in the process of photosynthesis, which makes it a very nutritious food. Amaranth can be cooked as a side dish, added to soups and stews, or popped like popcorn. The amount of amaranth in packaged products...
Wakame is a tenderizing seaweed that increases the digestibility of foods it is cooked with. Add to legume and vegetable dishes, toast to crisp and crumble over foods or rehydrate and cook until soft. Kombu can be used in almost all foods or toasted as a snack. When rehydrated it becomes mucilaginous. Nori is dark and crisp and available in sheets or flakes. It is used to wrap sushi and rice and can be added to soups and as a condiment for salads, vegetables, and grains. Arame has a mild, sweet taste and can be sauteed, combined with vegetables, or rehydrated and added to salads. Agar is a gelling agent that can be a substitute for commercial gelatin which is made from the bones, cartilage, and hides of horses, pigs, and cattle. Agar is soothing to the digestive tract and adds bulk to the food. It is available in powdered, granular, flaked, and bar form.
Fermented foods are predigested by bacteria, yeast, and molds that change the composition of the food. As part of a daily diet, they encourage the production of beneficial bacteria in the intestine that are necessary for complete and proper digestion, a strong immune system, and as an aid to the production of anticancer compounds. Fermented foods include yogurt with live active cultures, kefir, miso, tempeh, soy sauce, umeboshi, amasake, kombucha, natto, and apple cider and brown rice vinegars. Miso is a fermented paste made from soybeans. It can be used as a bouillon and as a replacement for salt, soy sauce, and Worcestershire sauce. Simmer for no longer than 1 minute to preserve the microorganisms. Natto is fermented soybeans and can be used as a condiment with rice, pasta, and other grains or added to soups. Tempeh is fermented soybeans and has a meaty taste that can substitute for burgers and meat in other dishes. It can be fried, grilled, baked, broiled, or steamed. Umeboshi is...
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