Natural Soap-Making Workshop
The first liquid soaps were solutions of soaps used in public washroom dispensers. Liquid soaps entered the mass market and appeared in consumer bathrooms in 1979 when Minnetonka launched Softsoap, quickly followed by products from Dial and Andrew Jergens. These products enjoyed an attractive growth to about the mid-1980s and captured 8-9 of the soap market. In 1986 Liquid Dial with antibacterial properties was introduced. By 1990-1991 antibacterial liquid soaps sales grew 20 . In 1993 they had captured 14 of the soap market in dollar terms. By 1996 these products plateaued. But the interest did not. Manufacturers focused on product niches and succeeded in launching in a third boom The consumers are educated and ready for the next wave to hit. So add two-in-one products such as dishwash liquid antibacterial handsoap or an antibacterial with lemon juice (Kitchen Softsoap).
There is little commonality in the scientific methods, processes, and formulations required for the wide variety of cosmetics and toiletries in the market. Products range from preparations for hair, oral, and skin care to lipsticks, nail polishes and extenders, deodorants, body powders and aerosols, to quasi-pharmaceutical over-the-counter products such as antiperspirants, dandruff shampoos, antimicrobial soaps, and acne and sun screen products.
A second factor driving the rise of multifunctional personal care products has to do with the level of maturity of the technology used to create cosmetics. As cosmetic science has matured, it has become increasingly difficult for formulators to improve upon any single aspect of a product's performance. Consider cleansing products like shampoos or soap bars. For centuries, all these products were based on soaps, which are saponified fatty acids. Because of their surfactant nature, soaps are able to remove dirt and grease from a variety of surfaces. However, soaps also tend to dry the skin and can combine with hard water ions to form insoluble deposits, resulting in the notorious bathtub ring. During the 1940s, advances in organic chemistry led to synthetic detergents such as sodium lauryl sulfate and a-olefin sulfonates, which were vastly superior in performance to soap. Today, the majority of cleansing products (including some bar soaps) use synthetic detergents. Surfactant technology...
Has there been any change in brand of soap, detergent, or fabric softener Does patient take showers or baths Certain soaps or cleansers can be associated with urethral irritation and pruritus. Bubble baths, for example, remove protective lipids from the urethra, causing irritation.
Patients should clean the perianal area with water following defecation, but avoid soaps and vigorous rubbing. Following this, the patient should dry the anus with a hair dryer or by patting gently with cotton. Between bowel movements a thin cotton pledget dusted with unscented cornstarch should be placed against the anus. A high fiber diet is recommended to regulate bowel movements and absorb excess liquid. All foods and beverages that may be exacerbating the itching should be eliminated.
Domestic production of pumice and pumicite was estimated at 400,000 tons in 1988 (162). About 70 of this came from mines in New Mexico and Idaho. Concrete admixtures and building blocks are the major uses for this material and account for 86 of the total production. A very finely groundform of pumice known as micronized pumice is used as an abrasive in toothpaste, polishes, and soaps. There is very little published information on potential occupational exposures to, and adverse health effects of, pumice. 9.5 Standards, Regulations, or Guidelines of Exposure
Increase the hydrophilicity of PET permanently without changing its bulk properties 31 . The anti-static properties and wicking time were also improved. In a similar study, a thin functional layer was established at a PET surface by cross-linking reactive substances by irradiation with excimer UV-lamps. Dyeability was also improved 32 . Laser treatments are used in grafting a CO2 pulsed excimer laser in air formed peroxides that initiated graft co-polymerization of acrylamide on the surface of PET film to improve wettability 33 . Vinyl compounds containing bromine or phosphorus have been grafted onto polyester to provide flame retardance 34 . The grafting can be made deeper by pre-swelling with ethylene dichloride. Repellency requires surface treatment, and in routine use, zirconium and aluminum soaps, combined with wax emulsions, have been used for many years 35 . Durable anti-static finishes based on polyamines modified again with oxyethylene segments have been widely used 36 .
The safety of collagen for human use is evidenced by its diverse uses and biomedical applications. Collagen is a common constituent in soaps, shampoos, facial creams, body lotions, and food-grade gelatin. In medicine, collagen has been used in cardiovascular surgery, plastic surgery, orthopedics, urology, neurosurgery, and ophthalmology. The major medical application of collagen is catgut suture, which is derived from intestinal collagen (7). Twenty-five percent of the total body protein in mammals is collagen it is the major protein of connective tissue, cartilage, and bone. The secondary and tertiary structures of human, porcine, and bovine collagen are very
Historically, consumers have relied on cleanliness to reduce bacterial contamination. We wash to remove as many pathogens as possible. With food poisonings, viruses, and the common cold, health care concerns on are the rise. This germ phobia has resulted in an outburst of antibacterial products soaps, lotions, facial cleansers, cutting board products, dishwashing soaps, kitchen and bathroom cleaners, countertops, kitchen appliances, pillows, sheets, mattress pads, kitty litter, children's toys, socks, athletic shoes, toothbrushes, sponges, and even toothpaste. Many people have an irrational fear of germs, and they are demanding better and safer products. The market is responding with a wide range of antibacterial products. Parents want to protect their children from the dangers of bacteria. Let us not forget the growing contingent of baby boomers and the Gen Xers, pursuing their quest for health and fitness. With more travel, day care, and public transportation, today's consumer is...
Transmission of this disease in the workplace is not well understood, and a cause-effect analysis is often not possible. The infectious dose required to cause an infection may be influenced significantly by environmental contaminants in the workplace. At high risk are individuals with certain occupations where the atmosphere may be contaminated with substances that may adversely effect the functioning of the host's normal defense mechanisms. This includes occupational environments encountered by miners, tunnel diggers, quarry workers, steel and iron foundries workers, ceramic workers, stone cutters, workers manufacturing abrasive soaps, glassmakers, and those involved in sandblasting operations. For example, the association between silicosis (silicotuberculosis) and pulmonary tuberculosis is well-accepted. Silicosis, one of the oldest known occupational lung diseases, develops in people who inhale silica dust for many years. People with silicosis are three times more likely to develop...
The type of claim(s) you want to make on your product and the type or category of product you have will determine the type of microtesting needed. For instance, there are products that are applied and then rinsed off, like hand soaps and body washes. To make an antibacterial handwash claim, you may need to perform in vitro and in vivo tests that include minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), time-kill, general use handwash methods, and residual efficacy tests (e.g., Agar Patch) 3 .
In the following sections the question will be addressed as to whether a role for calcium in weight control is substantiated by facts gained from epidemiological studies and the results of in vitro, animal and human intervention studies, showing either a positive role for calcium in lipid metabolism and weight control, or no effect at all. In order to understand these effects, the role of calcium in the regulation of energy metabolism is to be examined. This comprises effects on cellular energy metabolism (the Zemel hypothesis) and the reduction of energy intake by the formation of poorly absorbable calcium soaps and a potential calcium effect on appetite.
In addition, the contribution of the different mechanisms (i.e. the Zemel mechanism versus the formation of calcium soaps) to the overall calcium effect is not clear, although answering this question may be of a certain relevance for the development of calcium supplements and calcium-fortified food. The use of highly water-soluble complex calcium salts and the addition of caseinophosphopeptides improves calcium bioavaila-bility, increases calcium absorption and thus promotes lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation and increased loss of lipids from adipocytes according to Zemel's hypothesis, while the formation of calcium soaps and thus the intestinal fat excretion would be reduced.
Besides Zemel's hypothesis, that decreased intracellular calcium levels brought about by increased dietary calcium would promote lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation and the reduction of intracellular fat depots in adipose tissue, two other mechanisms have been suggested as explanations of an anti-obesity effect increased faecal lipid loss due to the formation of calcium soaps in the intestine as well as a decreased or later food intake after a previous calcium-rich meal. The contribution, however, of the different mechanisms to the overall calcium effect is unclear, although it is of critical importance to decide whether calcium intake should be increased by consuming highly water-soluble complex calcium salts and the addition of caseinophosphopeptides. Due to their high bioavailability, these complex calcium compounds, like calcium lactate gluconate, indeed support the Zemel mechanism, but it needs to be elucidated whether they also play a role in the formation of calcium soaps and thus...
Exogenous infections are caused by organisms that enter the patient's body from the external environment. These organisms can be acquired from animate sources, such as hospital staff, other patients, or people visiting the hospital. Organisms can also come from inanimate sources, like hospital equipment, intravenous and respiratory therapy equipment, catheters, computer keyboards, bathroom fixtures, doorknobs, soaps, and even certain disinfectants.
Frequently seen in infants wearing diapers because the diaper area is warm, often moist, and frequently contaminated by feces laden with organisms. Failure to change diapers frequently is a major predisposing factor. Harsh soaps, irritating chemicals, and detergents contribute to the process.
Some Gram-negative rods, particularly the common opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, can thrive in certain hospital environments such as sinks, respirators, and toilets. Not only is P. aeruginosa resistant to the effects of many disinfectants and antimicrobial drugs, it requires few nutrients, enabling it to multiply in environments containing little other than water. Many nosocomial infections have been traced to soaps, disinfectants, and other aqueous solutions that have become contaminated with the organism.
Triclosan is an antibacterial agent often found in soaps and deodorants. As an ingredient in toothpaste, it inhibits the growth of bacteria in plaque. Bacteria in plaque can produce harmful acids, toxins, and enzymes that damage surrounding gum tissues. The redness, swelling, tenderness, and bleeding of gums that result from plaque buildup are the symptoms of gingivitis.
This brings up again an idea proposed a longer time ago, according to which the divalent cation calcium prevents the intestinal absorption of part of the dietary fat and increases faecal lipid loss and sterol excretion forming insoluble fatty acid soaps and bile salts (Denke et al., 1993, Drenick, 1961, Vaskonen et al., 2001, 2002, Vaskonen 2003, Welberg et al., 1994). By the same mechanism calcium may enhance a cholesterol-lowering effect of other food components, e.g. plant sterols (Vaskonen et al., 2001). The extent of this effect increased with an increasing proportion of long-chain saturated fatty acids in the diet, whereby, with Western eating habits, the energy excretion with fat is probably around 1 and 3 of the daily energy supply, i.e. around 30 and 90 kcal day. In a study by Shahkhalalili and co-workers (2001) calcium fortification of chocolate doubled calcium ingestion from 950 to 1855 mg day and increased faecal fat excretion by 36 kcal day (4.04 g day). This effect seems...
Irritant dermatitis is the most frequently observed reaction to latex products, accounting for 80 percent of work-related reactions to latex gloves.2 This type of reaction results from the drying action of the corn starch and or other irritant chemicals found in gloves and can be exacerbated by the soaps and mechanical irritation required for surgical scrubbing. Irritant dermatitis is not mediated by the immune system and is not a true allergy. However, the resulting deterioration in skin integrity possibly enhances absorption of latex protein allergens and is believed to accelerate the onset of allergic reactions.
Exports of pimento leaf oil in 2001 were approximately 25,000 Kg at a value of US 1 M. Jamaica produces a range of pimento products, such as spice mixtures, liqueurs and soaps. Some of the issues facing increased production are the need for policies relating to conservation and sustainability. More cultivation is needed while production, being seasonal, is available only for about six months of the year.
Scrubbing of hands and forearms is important because the skin of the surgeon, as the skin of the patient, contains germs. Cleaning with adequate liquid disinfectant soaps should be done meticulously, taking the necessary time it is also useful to use a proper brush, which should not be too aggressive, however, in order to avoid skin microlesions.
Accidental poisonings usually affect children. In the years from 1972 through 1976, there were from one to two million cases of accidental poisoning per year in the United States. Since 1976, this number of accidental poisonings has dropped to approximately 500,000 cases per year. This decrease is attributed to the Poison Prevention Packaging Act and to poison prevention publicity. The most common sources of accidental poisoning were plants, various types of cleaners (soaps,
Contact dermatitis, also called exogenous dermatitis, is caused by chemical or plant irritation and is characterized by a skin rash with itching, swelling, blistering, oozing, or scaling at the affected skin sites. The chemical contact may include cosmetics, cleansing products (soaps and detergents), perfume, clothing, dyes, and topical drugs. Plant contacts include poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac.
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