References

Ader, R. (1996) Historical perspectives on psychoneuroimmunology. In: H. Friedman, T.W. Klein, and A.L. Friedman (Eds.), Psychoneuroimmunology, Stress, and Infection. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 1-24.

Ader, R., and Cohen, N. (1975) Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression. Psychosom Med 37, 333-340.

Aguila, M.C., Rodriguez, A.M., Aguila-Mansila, H.N., and Lee, W.T. (1996) Somatostatin antisense oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated stimulation of lymphocyte proliferation in culture. Endocrinology 137, 1585-1590.

Arkins, S., Rebeiz, N., Biragyn, A., Reese, D.L., and Kelley, K.W. (1993) Murine macrophages express abundant insulin-like growth factor-I class I Ea and Eb transcripts. Endocrinology 133, 2334-2343.

Arnold, R.E., and Weigent, D.A. (2003) The production of nitric oxide in EL4 lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone. J Neuroimmunol 134, 82-94.

Arzt, E., Stelzer, G., Renner, U., Lange, M., Muller, A., and Stalla, G.K. (1992) Interleukin-2 and interleukin-2 receptor in human corticotrophic adenoma and murine pituitary cell cultures. J Clin Invest 90, 1944-1951.

Banks, W.A., Farr, S.A., and Morley, J.E. (2002) Entry of blood-borne cytokines into the central nervous system: Effects on cognitive processes. Neuroimmunomodulation 10, 319327.

Banks, W.A., Moinuddin, A., and Morley, J.E. (2006) Regional transport of TNF-alpha across the blood-brain barrier in young ICR and young and aged SAMP8 mice. Neurobiol Aging 22, 671-676.

Batticane, N., Morale, M., Galio, F., Farinella, Z., and Marchetti, B. (1991) Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone signalling at the lymphocyte involves stimulation of interleukin-2 receptor expression. Endocrinology 129, 277-286.

Baxter, J.B., Blalock, J.E., and Weigent, D.A. (1991) Characterization of immunoreactive insulin-like growth factor-I from leukocytes and its regulation by growth hormone. Endocrinology 129, 1727-1734.

Bellinger, D.L., Lorton, D., Romano, T., Olschowka, J.A., Felten, S.Y., and Felten, D.L. (1990) Neuropeptide innervation of lymphoid organs. Ann N YAcad Sci 594, 17-33.

Bergquist, J., Tarkowski, A., Ekman, R., and Ewing, A. (1994) Discovery of endogenous catecholamines in lymphocytes and evidence for catecholamine regulation of lymphocyte function via an autocrine loop. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 12912-12916.

Berkenbosch, F., Van Oers, J., Del Rey, A., Tilders, F., and Besedovsky, H. (1987) Corticotropin-releasing factor-producing neurons in the rat activated by interleukin-1. Science 238, 524-526.

Bernardini, R., Kammilaris, T.C., Calogero, A.E., Johnson, E.O., Gomez, M.T., Gold, P.W., and Chrousos, G.P. (1990) Interactions between tumor necrosis factor-a, hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone, and adrenocorticotropin secretion in the rat. Endocrinology 126, 2876-2881.

Bernton, E., Bryant, H., Holaday, J., and Dave, J. (1987) Release of multiple hormones by a direct action of interleukin-1 on pituitary cells. Science 238, 519-522.

Bernton, E.W., Bryant, H.U., and Holaday, J.W. (1991) Prolactin and immune function. In: R. Ader, D.L. Felten, and N. Cohen (Eds.), Psychoneuroimmunology. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 403-428.

Besedovsky, H., Sorkin, E., Keller, M., and Miller, J. (1977) Hypothalamic changes during the immune response. Eur J Immunol 7, 323-325.

Besedovsky, H.O., delRey, A.E., and Sorkin, E. (1981) Lymphokine containing supernatants from Con A-stimulated cells increase corticosterone blood levels. J Immunol 126, 385387.

Besedovsky, H.O., delRey, A.E., Sorkin, E., DaPrada, M., and Keller, H.A. (1979) Immunoregulation mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. Cell Immunol 48, 346.

Blalock, J.E. (1984) The immune system as a sensory organ. J Immunol 132, 1067-1070.

Blalock, J.E. (1994) The immune system: Our sixth sense. Immunologist 2, 8-15.

Blalock J.E., and Costa, O. (1990) Immune neuroendocrine interactions: Implications for reproductive physiology. Ann N Y Acad Sci 564, 261-266.

Blalock, J.E., and Smith, E.M. (1980) Human leukocyte interferon: Structural and biological relatedness to adrenocorticotropic hormone and endorphins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77, 5972-5974.

Brooks, K.H. (1990) Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) functions as a late-acting B cell growth factor and synergizes with interleukin 5. J Mol Cell Immunol 4, 327-335.

Bryant, P.A., Trinder, J., and Curtis, N. (2004) Sick and tired: Does sleep have a vital role in the immune system. Nat Rev Immunol 4, 457-467.

Carr, D.J., DeCosta, B.R., Jacobson, A.E., Rice, K.C., and Blalock, J.E. (1990) Corticotropin-releasing hormone augments natural killer cell activity through a naloxone-sensitive pathway. J Neuroimmunol 28, 53-61.

Carr, D.J.J. (1991) The role of endogenous opioids and their receptors in the immune system. Soc Exp Biol Med 198, 170-720.

Carr, D.J.J. (1992) Neuroendocrine peptide receptors on cells of the immune system. In: J.E. Blalock (Ed.), Neuroimmunoendocrinology. Karger, Basel, pp. 49-83.

Clarke, B.L., and Bost, K.L. (1989) Differential expression of functional adrenocorticotropic hormone receptors by subpopulations of lymphocytes. J Immunol 143, 464-469.

Clevenger, C.V., Sillman, A.L., Hanley-Hyde, J., and Prystowsky, M.B. (1992) Requirement for prolactin during cell cycle regulated gene expression in cloned T-lymphocytes. Endocrinology 130, 3216-3222.

Clevenger, C.V., Sillman, A.L., and Prystowsky, M.B. (1990) Interleukin-2 driven nuclear translocation of prolactin in cloned T-lymphocytes. Endocrinology 127, 3151-3159.

Cross, R.J., Markesbery, W.R., Brooks, W.H., and Roszman, T.L. (1980) Hypothalamic-immune interactions. I. The acute effect of anterior hypothalamic lesions on the immune response. Brain Res 196, 79-87.

DeBellis, A., Bizzarro, A., Pivonello, R., Lombardi, G., and Bellastella, A. (2005) Prolactin and autoimmunity. Pituitary 8, 25-30.

Delgado, M., Gonzalez-Rey, E., and Ganea, D. (2004) VIP/PACAP preferentially attract Th2 effectors through differential regulation of chemokine production by dendritic cells. FASEB J 18, 1453-1455.

DeSouza, E.B. (1993) Corticotropin-releasing factor and interleukin-1 receptors in the brain-endocrine-immune axis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 697, 9-27.

Dhabhar, F.S., and McEwen, B.S. (1999) Enhancing versus suppressive effects of stress hormones on skin immune function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96, 1059-1064.

Dinarello, C.A. (2004) Infection, fever and exogenous and endogenous pyrogens: Some concepts have changed. J Endotoxin Res 10, 201-222.

Dobbs, C.M., Vasquez, M., Glaser, R., and Sheridan, J.F. (1993) Mechanisms of stress-induced modulation of viral pathogenesis and immunity. J Neuroimmunol 48, 151-160.

Dubuis, J.M., Dayer, J.M., Siegrist-Kaiser, C.A., and Burger, A.G. (1988) Human recombinant interleukin-1 beta decreases plasma thyroid hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone levels in rats. Endocrinology 123, 2175-2181.

Edwards, C.K., Ghiasuddin, S.M., Schepper, J.M., Yunger, L.M., and Kelley, K.W. (1988) A newly defined property of somatotropin: Priming of macrophages for production of superoxide anion. Science 239, 769-771.

Feistritzer, C., Clausen, J., Sturn, D.H., Djanani, A., Gunsilius, E., Wiedermann, C.J., and Kahler, C.M. (2003) Natural killer cell functions mediated by the neuropeptide substance P. Regul Pept 116, 119-126.

Felten, D.L., Felten, S.Y., Bellinger, D.L., Carlson, S.L., Ackerman K.D., Madden, K.S., Olschowka,J.A., and Livnat, S. (1987) Noradrenergic sympathetic neural interactions with the immune system: Structure and function. Immunol Rev 100, 225-260.

Fomicheva, E.E., Nemirovich-Danchenko, E.A., and Korneva, E.A. (2004) Immunoprotective effects of prolactin during stress-induced immune dysfunction. Bull Exp Biol Med 6, 544547.

Foster, C.A., Mandak, B., Kromer, E., and Rot, A. (1992) Calcitonin gene-related peptide is chemotactic for human T lymphocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci 657, 397-404.

Fujii, T., and Kawashima, K. (2000) Calcium signaling and c-fos gene expression via M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in human T- and B-cells. Jpn J Pharmacol 84, 124132.

Fujimoto, K., Matsui, M., Fujii, T., and Kawashima, K. (2001) Decreased acetylcholine content and choline acetyltransferase mRNA expression in circulating mononuclear leukocytes and lymphoid organs of the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Life Sci 69, 16291638.

Fujino, H., Kitamura, Y., Yada, T., Uehara, T., and Nomura, Y. (1997) Stimulatory roles of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in T cell antigen receptor/CD3 complex-mediated interleukin-2 production in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mol Pharmacol 51, 1007-1114.

Fukushima, T., Ichinose, M., Shingai, R., and Sawada, M. (2001) Adrenocorticotropic hormone activates an outward current in cultured mouse peritoneal macropahges. J Neuroimmunol 113, 231-235.

Gaillard, R.C., Turnill, D., Sappino, P., and Muller, A.F. (1990) Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibits the hormonal response of the pituitary gland to hypothalamic releasing factors. Endocrinology 127, 101-106.

Gala, R.R. (1991) Prolactin and growth hormone in the regulation of the immune system. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 198, 513-527.

Gala, R.R., and Shevach, E.M. (1993) Identification by analytical flow cytometry of prolactin receptors on immunocompetent cell populations in the mouse. Endocrinology 133, 16171623.

Gan, X., Zhang, L., Solomon, G.F., and Bonavida, B. (2002) Mechanism of norepinephrine-mediated inhibition of human NK cytotoxic functions: Inhibition of cytokine secretion, target binding, and programming for cytotoxicity. Brain Behav Immun 16, 227-246.

Ganea, D., Rodriquez, R., and Delgado, M. (2003) Vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: Players in innate and adaptive immunity. Cell Mol Biol 49, 127-142.

Geffner, M.E., Bersch, N., Lippe, B.M., Rosenfeld, R.G., Hintz, R.L., and Golde, D.W. (1990) Growth hormone mediates the growth of T-lymphoblast cell lines via locally generated insulin-like growth factor-I. J Clin Endocrin Metab 71, 464-469.

Glaser, R., Rice, J., Sheridan, J., Fertel, R., Stout, J., Speicher, C., Pinsky, D., Kotur, M., Post, A., Beck, M., and Kiecolt-Glaser, J.A. (1987) Stress-related immune suppression: Health implications. Brain Behav Immun 1, 7-20.

Gonzalez, M.C., Aguila, M.C., and McCann, S.M. (1991) In vitro effects of recombinant human gamma-interferon on growth hormone release. Prog Neuroendocrin Immunol 4, 222-227.

Gonzalez, M.C., Riedel, M., Rettori, V., Yu, W.H., and McCann, S.M. (1990) Effect of recombinant human gamma-interferon on the release of anterior pituitary hormones. Prog Neuroendocrin Immunol 3, 49-54.

Guarcello, V., Weigent, D.A., and Blalock, J.E. (1991) Growth hormone releasing hormone receptors on thymocytes and splenocytes from rats. Cell Immunol 136, 291-302.

Hadden, J.W., Hadden, E.M., and Middleton, E. (1970) Lymphocyte blast transformation. I. Demonstration of adrenergic receptors in human peripheral lymphocytse. J Cell Immunol 1, 583-595.

Hadden, J.W., Hadden, E.M., Middleton, E., and Good, R.A. (1971) Lymphocyte blast transformation. II. The mechanisms of action of alpha adrenergic receptors effects. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 40, 526-539.

Harbour, D.V., and Hughes, T.K. Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) induces gamma interferon release. FASEB J A5884. 1991.

Harbour, D.V., Leon, S., Keating, C., and Hughes, T.K. (1990) Thyrotropin modulates B-cell function through specific bioactive receptors. Prog Neuroendocrin Immunol 3, 266-276.

Hiruma, K., Koike, T., Nakamura, H., Sumida, T., Maeda, T., Tomioka, H., Yoshida, S, and Fujita, T. (1990) Somatostatin receptors on human lymphocytes and leukaemia cells. Immunology 71, 480-485.

Ho, W., Lai, J., Li, Y., and Douglas, S. (2002) HIV enhances substance P expression in human immune cells. FASEB J 16, 616-618.

Irwin, M. (2002) Effects of sleep and sleep loss on immunity and cytokines. Brain Behav Immun 16, 503-512.

Jain, R., Zwickler, D., Hollander, C.S., Brand, H., Saperstein, A., Hutchinson, B., Brown, C., and Audhya, T. (1991) Corticotropin-releasing factor modulates the immune response to stress in the rat. Endocrinology 128, 1329-1336.

Johnson, H.M., Downs, M.O., and Pontzer, C.H. (1992) Neuroendocrine peptide hormone regulation of immunity. Chem Immunol 52, 49-83.

Johnson, H.M., Farrar, W.L., and Torres, B.A. (1982a) Vasopressin replacement of interleukin 2 requirement in gamma interferon production: Lymphokine activity of a neuroendocrine hormone. J Immunol 129, 983-986.

Johnson, H.M., Smith, E.M., Torres, B.A., and Blalock, J.E. (1982b) Neuroendocrine hormone regulation of in vitro antibody formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79, 4171-4174.

Johnson, H.M., Torres, B.A., Smith, E.M., Dion, L.D., and Blalock, J.E. (1984) Regulation of lymphokine (gamma-interferon) production by corticotropin. J Immunol 132, 246-250.

Kakucska, I., Qi, Y., Clark, B.D., and Lechan, R.M. (1993) Endotoxin-induced corticotropin-releasing hormone gene expression is the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is mediated centrally by interleukin-1. Endocrinology 129, 2796.

Kalra, P.S., Sahu, A., and Kalra, S.P. (1990) Interleukin-1 inhibits the ovarian steroid-induced luteinizing hormone surge and release of hypothalamic luteinizing hormone- releasing hormone in rats. Endocrinology 126, 2145-2152.

Karanth, S., Aguila, M.C., and McCann, S.M. (1993) The influence of interleukin-2 on the release of somatostatin and growth hormone-releasing hormone by mediobasal hypothalamus. Neuroendocrinology 58, 185-190.

Karanth, S., and McCann, S.M. (1991) Anterior pituitary hormone control by interleukin 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88, 2961-2965.

Kawashima, K., and Fujii, T. (2003) The lymphocytic cholinergic system and its biological function. Life Sci 72, 2101-2109.

Kelley, K.W. (1989) Growth hormone, lymphocytes and macrophages [Review]. Biochem Pharmacol 38, 705-713.

Kelley, K.W., Arkins, S., and Li, Y.M. (1992) Growth hormone, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factors: New jobs for old players. Brain Behav Immun 6, 317-326.

Koff, W.C., and Dunnegan, M.A. (1986) Neuroendocrine hormones suppress macrophage-mediated lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected cells. J Immunol 136, 705-709.

Kooijman, R., and Coppens, A. (2004) Insulin-like growth facator-1 stimulates IL-10 production in human T cells. J Leukoc Biol 76, 862-867.

Kooijman, R., and Gerlo, S. (2002) Prolactin expression in the immune system. In: L. Matera and R. Rapaport (Eds.), Growth and Lactogenic Hormones. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp. 147-159.

Kooijman, R., Hooghe-Peters, E.L., and Hooghe, R. (1996) Prolactin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the immune system. Adv Immunol 63, 377-453.

Kruger, T.E., Smith, L.R., Harbour, D.V., and Blalock, J.E. (1989) Thyrotropin: An endogenous regulator of the in vitro immune response. J Immunol 142, 744-747.

Lai, J.-P., Ho, W.Z., Kilpatrick, L.E., Wang, X., Tuluc, F., Korchak, H.M., and Douglas, S.D. (2006) Full-length and truncated neurokinin-1 receptor expression and function during monocyte/macrophage differentiation. Proc Acad Sci USA 103, 7771-7776.

Laye, S., Bluthe, R.M., Kent, S., Combe, C., Medina, C., Pamet, P., Kelley, K., and Dantzer,R. (1995). Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy blocks induction of IL-1P mRNA in mice brain in response to peripheral LPS. Am J Physiol 268, R1327-R1331.

Levite, M. (1998) Neuropeptides, by direct interaction with T cells, induce cytokine secretion and break the commitment to a distinct T helper phenotype. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 12544-12549.

Li, Y.M., Arkins, S., McCusker, R.H., Jr., Donovan, S.M., Liu, Q., Jayaraman, S., and Dantzer, R. (1996) Macrophages synthesize and secrete a 25 kDa protein that binds insulin-like growth factor-1. J Immunol 156, 64-72.

Lin, L., Hungs, M., and Mignot, E. (2001) Narcolepsy and the HLA region. J Neuroimmunol 117, 9-20.

Lipton, J. and Catania, A. (2003). Anti-inflammatory actions of the neuroimmunomodulator a-MSH. Immunol Today 18, 140-145.

Luger, T.A., Scholzen, T.E., Brzoska, T., and Bohm, M. (2003) New insights into the functions of a-MSH and related peptides in the immune system. Ann N Y Acad Sci 994, 133-140.

Matera, L., Cesano, A., Bellone, G., and Oberholtzer, E. (1992) Modulatory effect of prolactin on the resting and mitogen-activity of T, B, and NK lymphocytes. Brain Behav Immun 6, 409-417.

Matera, L., Mori, M., and Galetto, A. (2001) Effect of prolactin on the antigen presenting function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Lupus 10, 728-734.

Mathew, R.C., Cook, G.A., Blum, A.M., Metwali, A., Felman, R., and Weinstock, J.V. (1992) Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates T lymphocytes to release IL-5 in murine schistosomiasis mansoni infection. J Immunol 148, 3572-3577.

McCann, S.M., Karanth, S., Kamat, A., Dees, W.L., Lyson, K., Gimeno, M., and Rettori, V. (1994) Induction of cytokines of the pattern of pituitary hormone secretion in infection. Neuroimmunomodulation 1, 2-13.

McGillis, J.P., Humphreys, S., and Reid, S. (1991) Characterization of functional calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors on rat lymphocytes. J Immunol 147, 3482-3489.

Metal'nikov, S., and Chorine, V. (1926) Role des reflexes conditionnels dans l'immunite. Ann l'Institute Pasteur 40, 893-900.

Milenkovic, L., Rettori, V., Snyder, G.E., Reutler, B., and McCann, S.M. (1989) Cachectin alters anterior pituitary hormone release by a direct action in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86, 2418-2422.

Moldofsky, H. (1993) Fibromyalgia, sleep disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome. Ciba Found Symp 173, 272-279.

Montgomery, D.W. (2001) Prolactin production by immune cells. Lupus 10, 665-675.

Montgomery, D.W., Shen, G.K., Ulrich, E.D., Steiner, L.L., Parrish, P.R., and Zukoski,C.F. (1992) Human thymocytes express a prolactin-like messenger ribonucleic acid and synthesize bioactive prolactin-like protein. Endocrinology 131, 3019-3026.

Mullington, J., Korth, C., Hermann, D.M., Orth, A., Galanos, C., Holsboer, F., and Pollmacher, T. (2000) Dose-dependent effects of endotoxin on human sleep. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 278, R947-R955.

Naitoh, Y., Fukata, J., Tominaga, T., Nakai, Y., Tamai, S., Mori, K., and Imura, H. (1988) Interleukin-6 stimulates the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone in conscious, freely-moving rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 155, 1459-1463.

O'Neal, K.D., Schwarz, L.A., and Yu-Lee, L.Y. (1991) Prolactin receptor gene expression in lymphoid cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 82, 127-135.

Obal, F., Jr., Fang, J., Payne, L.C., and Krueger, J. (1995) Growth-hormone-releasing hormone mediates the sleep-promoting activity of interleukin-1 in rats. Neuroendocrinology 61, 559-565.

Opp, M.R., and Imeri, L. (2001) Rat strains that differ in corticotropin-releasing hormone production exhibit different sleep-wake responses to interleukin-1. Neuroendocrinology 73, 272-284.

Opp, M.R., and Krueger, J.M. (1994) Anti-interleukin-1-beta reduces sleep and sleep rebound after sleep deprivation in rats. Am J Physiol 266, R688-R695.

Ottaway, C.A., Bernaerts, C., Chan, B., and Greenberg, G.R. (1983) Specific binding of vasoactive intestinal peptide to human circulating mononuclear cells. Can J Phys Pharm 61, 664-671.

Pascual, D.W., Xu-Amano, J.C., Kiyono, H., McGhee, J.R., and Bost, K.L. (1991) Substance P acts directly upon cloned B lymphoma cells to enhance IgA and IgM production. J Immunol 146, 2130-2136.

Pavlov, V.A., Wang, H., Czura, C.J., Friedman, S.G., and Tracey, K.J. (2003) The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway: A missing link in neuroimmunomodulation. Mol Med 9, 125134.

Payne, L.C., Weigent, D.A., and Blalock, J.E. (1994) Induction of pituitary sensitivity to interleukin-1: A new function for corticotropin-releasing hormone. Biochem Biophy Res Commun 198, 480-484.

Pierpaoli, W., Baroni, C., Fabris, N., and Sorkin, E. (1969) Hormones and immunological capacity. II. Reconstitution of antibody production in hormonally deficient mice by somatotropic hormone, thyrotropic hormone and thyroxin. J Immunol 16, 217-230.

Provinciali, M., Di Stefano, G., and Fabris, N. (1992) Improvement in the proliferative capacity and natural killer cell activity of murine spleen lymphocytes by thyrotropin. Int J Immunopharm 14, 865-870.

Qiu, Y.-H., Peng, Y.-P., Jiang, J.-M., and Wang, J.-J. (2004) Expression of tyrosine hydroxlyase in lymphocytes and effect of endogenous catecholamines on lymphocyte function. Neuroimmunomodulation 11, 75-83.

Rasmussen, A.F., Jr., Marsh, J.T., and Brill, N.Q. (1957) Increased susceptibility to herpes simplex in mice subjected to avoidance-learning stress or restraint. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 96, 183-189.

Renegar, K.B., Crouse, D., Floyd, R.A., and Krueger, J. (2000) Progression of influenza viral infection through the murine respiratory tract: The protective role of sleep deprivation. Sleep 23, 859-863.

Renier, G., Clement, I., Desfaits, A.C., and Lambert, A. (1996) Direct stimulatory effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 on monocyte and macaro phage tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Endocrinology 137, 4611-4618.

Rivest, S. (1995) Molecular mechanisms and neural pathways mediating the influence of interleukin-1 on the activity of neuroendocrine CRF motoneurons in the rat. Int J Dev Neurosci 13, 135.

Rouabhia, M., Chakir, J., and Deschaux, P. (1991) Interaction between the immune and endocrine systems: Immunomodulatory effects of luteinizing hormone. Prog Neuroendocrin Immunol 4, 86-91.

Roupas, P., and Herington, A.C. (1989) Cellular mechanisms in the processing of growth hormone and its receptor [Review]. Mol Cell Endocrinol 61, 1-12.

Ruzicka, B., and Huda, A.K.L. (1995) Differential cellular regulation of POMC by IL-1 and corticotrophin-releasing hormone. Neuroendocrinology 61, 136.

Sakami, S., Ishikawa, T., Kawakami, N., Haratani, T., Fukui, A., Kobayashi, F., Fujita, O., Araki, S., and Kawamura, N. (2002) Coemergence of insomnia and a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th2 dominance. Neuroimmunomodulation 10, 337-343.

Savard, J., Laroche, L., Simard, S., Ivers, H., and Morin, C.M. (2003) Chronic insomnia and immune functioning. Psychosom Med 65, 211-221.

Schobitz, B., Pezeshki, G., Pohl, T., Hemmann, U., Heinrich, P.C., Holsboer, F., and Reul, J.M.H.M. (1995) Soluble interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor augments central effects of IL-6 in vivo. FASEB J 9, 659.

Siejka, A., Stepien, T., Lawnicka, H., Krupinski, R., Komorowski, J., and Stepien, H. (2005) Effect of growth hormone-releasing hormone [GHRH(1-44)NH2] on IL-6 and IL-8 secretion from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Endocr Rev 39, 7-11.

Singh, U. (1985) Lymphoiesis in the nude fetal mouse thymus following sympathectomy. Cell Immunol 93, 222-228.

Smith, A. (1992) In: R.J. Broughton and R.D. Ogilvie (Eds.), Arousal and Performance. Birkhauser, Boston, pp. 233-242.

Smith, E.M. (2003) Opioid peptides in immune cells. In: H. Machelska and C. Stein (Eds.), Immune Mechanisms of Pain and Analgesia. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 51-68.

Smith, E.M., and Blalock, J.E. (1981) Human lymphocyte production of corticotropin and endorphin-like substances: Association with leukocyte interferon. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78, 7530-7534.

Smith, E.M., Hughes, T.K., Hashemi, F., and Stefano, G.B. (1992) Immunosuppressive effects of corticotropin and melanotropin and their possible significance in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89, 782-786.

Spangelo, B.L., Judd, A.M., Isakson, P.C., and MacLeod, R.M. (1989) Interleukin-6 stimulates anterior pituitary hormone release in vitro. Endocrinology 125, 575-577.

Spangelo, B.L., and MacLeod, R.M. (1990) Regulation of acute phase response and neuroendocrine function by interleukin 6. Prog Neuroendocrin Immunol 3, 167-174.

Spiegel, K., Sheridan, J.F., and Van Cauter, E. (2002) Effect of sleep deprivation on response to immunization. JAMA 288, 1471-1472.

Stanisz, A.M., Befus, D., and Bienenstock, J. (1986) Differential effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P and somatostatin on immunoglobulin synthesis and proliferation by lymphocytes from Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. J Immunol 136, 152.

Stein, M., Schiavi, R.C., and Camerino, M. (1976) Influence of brain and behavior on the immune system. Science 191, 435-440.

Suzuki, K., Suzuki, S., Saito, Y., Ikebuchi, H., and Terao, T. (1990) Human growth hormone-stimulated growth of human cultured lymphocytes (IM-9) and its inhibition by phorbol diesters through down-regulation of the hormone receptors. Possible involvement of phosphorylation of a 55,000 molecular weight protein associated with the receptor in the down-regulation. J Biol Chem 265, 11320-11327.

Tayebati, S.K., El-Assouad, D., Ricci, A., and Amenta, F. (2002) Immunochemical and immunocytochemical characterization of cholinergic markers in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. J Neuroimmunol 132, 147-155.

Torres, K.C.L., Antonelli, L.R.V., Souza, A.L.S., Teixeira, M.M., Dutra, W.O., and Gollob, K.J. (2005) Norepinephrine, dopamine and dexamethasone modulate discrete leukocyte subpopulations and cytokine profiles from human PBMC. J Neuroimmunol 166, 144-157.

Toth, L.A., and Krueger, J.M. (1988) Alteration of sleep in rabbits by Staphylococcus aureus infection. Infect Immun 56, 1785-1791.

Tracey, K. (2002) The inflammatory reflex. Nature 420, 853-859.

Tsao, C.W., Lin, Y.S., and Cheng, J.T. (1998) Inhibition of immune cell proliferation with haloperidol and relationship of tyrosine hydroxylase expression to immune cell growth. Life Sci 62, 335-344.

Vankelecom, H., Carmeliet, P., Heremans, H., Van Damme, J., Dijkmans, R., Billiau, A., and Denef, C. (1990) Interferon-gamma inhibits stimulated adrenocorticotropin, prolactin, and growth hormone secretion in normal rat anterior pituitary cell cultures. Endocrinology 126, 2919-2926.

Wang, H., Xing, L., Li, W., Hou, L., Guo, J., and Wang, X. (2002) Production and secretion of calcitonin gene-related peptide from human lymphocytes. J Neuroimmunol 130, 155-162.

Wang, H.C., and Klein, J.R. (2001) Immune function of thyroid stimulating hormone and receptor. Crit Rev Immunol 21, 323-337.

Warthan, M.D., Freeman, J., Loesser, K., Lewis, C., Hong, M., Conway, C., and Stewart, J. (2002) Phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase expression in mouse thymus and spleen. Brain Behav Immun 16, 493-499.

Webster, E.L., Tracey, D.E., and De Souza, E.B. (1991) Upregulation of interleukin-1 receptors in mouse AtT-20 pituitary tumor cells following treatment with corticotropin-releasing factor. Endocrinology 129, 2796-2798.

Weigent, D.A., Baxter, J.B., and Blalock, J.E. (1992) The production of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I by the same subpopulation of rat mononuclear leukocytes. Brain Behav Immun 6, 365-376.

Weigent, D.A., and Blalock, J.E. (1995) Associations between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. JLeukoc Biol 58, 137-150.

Weigent, D.A., Blalock, J.E., and LeBoeuf, R.D. (1991) An antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to growth hormone messenger ribonucleic acid inhibits lymphocyte proliferation. Endocrinology 128, 2053-2057.

Williams, J.M., Peterson, R.G., Shea, P.A., Schmedtje, J.R., Bauer, D.C., and Felten, D.L. (1981) Sympathetic innervation of murine thymus and spleen: Evidence for a functional link between the nervous and immune system. Brain Res Bull 6, 83.

Wilson, T., Yu-Lee, L., and Kelley, M. (1995) Coordinate gene expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and the LHRH receptor after prolactin stimulation in the rat Nb2 T cell line: Implications for a role in immunomodulation and cell cycle gene expression. Mol Endocrinol 9, 44-53.

Woloski, B.M., Smith, E.M., Meyer, W.J.3., Fuller, G.M., and Blalock, J.E. (1985) Corticotropin-releasing activity of monokines. Science 230, 1035-1037.

Wrona, D. (2006) Neural-immune interactions: An integrative view of the bidirectional relationship between the brain and immune systems. J Neuroimmunol 172, 38-58.

Zelazowski, P., Dohler, K.D., Stepien, H., and Pawlikowski, M. (1989) Effect of growth hormone-releasing hormone on human peripheral blood leukocyte chemotaxis and migration in normal subjects. Neuroendocrinology 50, 236-239.

Natural Cures For Insomnia

Natural Cures For Insomnia

How Would You Love To Finally Get A Decent Night's Sleep? Do you toss and turn all night long without getting much of a wink of sleep? Are you tired of counting sheep for hours without falling asleep? Wouldn't you love to be able to fall asleep simply, easily and naturally, without pills, potions or harmful medicine?

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment