A sequence of particular value, which is proprietary to Siemens MR scanners, is "constructive interference in the steady state" (CISS): this is of superior quality in demonstrating structures with one or more interfaces with CSF, such as the floor of the third ventricle, membranes within the ventricular system, and paraventric-ular cysts and subarachnoid structures . Patients with hydrocephalus in association with the dysraphic states may have very complex ventricular anatomy, which will be best understood if examined by MR with CISS. The avoidance of ionizing radiation, especially in younger patients who may well require repeated imaging, is a further advantage. MR is therefore the modality of choice for pre-operative planning and for post-operative evaluation. Close collaboration and good communication between neurosurgeon, neuroradiologist and neuroradiographer will be rewarded by a more effective analysis of cases and an optimized, and safer, neuroendoscopic approach. Some practitioners have found the employment of intraoperative positive-contrast ventriculog-raphy of value in confirming patency of third ventriculostomies.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.