Thoracic Spine Injuries

Injuries to the thoracic spine account for 15% of all spinal cord injuries [24]. Although it is difficult to injure the thoracic spine, the contained segment of the spinal cord is very susceptible to injury and has the poorest prognosis for functional recovery. Only 10% of thoracic vertebral body injuries are associated with a spinal cord injury. This is in contradistinction of 39% seen in the cervical spine. Poor collateral circulation and a small spinal-canal-to-spinal-cord ratio account for the severity of the neurological deficits frequently associated with injuries to this region.

In this region, the spinal cord is protected by the ribs, the chest cage and chest wall musculature, the sternum, the back and the costoverte-bral ligaments. This also adds stability to the thoracic region in the sense that it reduces the amount of physiological movement allowed. For example, the rib cage restricts motion in extension approximately 70% [25]. The rib cage also adds stiffness to the spine as evidenced by data, which demonstrates a fourfold increase in compression tolerance of the vertebral column with an intact rib cage [26]. The ribs also limit the flexion and extension of the upper thoracic area, while the posterior elements mainly resist extension. A physiological kyphosis also occurs due to the greater height of the posterior vertebral wall compared to the anterior vertebral wall. The axis of rotation at a given segment is located in the anterior portion of the vertebral body. Flexion and axial loading account for the majority of osseous injuries to this region, due to a combination of these factors.

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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