Summary

This chapter will review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, recommended evaluation and treatment of Central Nervous System (CNS) infections associated with HIV infection and Neurocysticercosis (NCC). HIV infection is frequently complicated by opportunistic infection or neoplasm of the CNS. NCC, a parasitic infection of the CNS, is the most common cause of epilepsy in the developing world and may present clinically as obstructive hydrocephalus. Most opportunistic CNS infections and neoplasms are associated with headache, fever, meningis-mus, altered level of consciousness, or focal neurologic deficit. NCC is diagnosed by neu-roimaging and serologic testing. Treatment of these CNS infections is mainly medical, but can include surgery for diagnostic purposes and surgical removal of lesions.

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