Endovascular neuroradiological techniques may be used to treat a wide range of vascular diseases, either in isolation, or as an adjunct to surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery. Techniques include balloon occlusion, emboliza-tion using Guglielmi detachable coils, liquid agents or particles, angioplasty and stenting. Rapid technological advancement in the field constantly expands the indications for endovascular treatment. Such treatment should only be undertaken in a neuroscience center, as part of a multidisci-plinary team approach. Guidelines for treatment of the acutely ruptured aneurysm vary widely, but coil embolization is increasingly used as an alternative to surgical clipping to prevent early rebleeding. The long term efficacy is as yet unproven, and close follow up is advised. Carotid angioplasty, with or without stenting, is a promising alternative to carotid endarterectomy, but further trials are needed. The value of stents in the treatment of vertebral artery stenosis is uncertain.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.