Image-guided neurosurgery depends on the registration of pre-operatively acquired images with the physical space of the patient on the operating table. With the aid of a computer workstation and a tracking device, the neurosurgeon is able to obtain a three-dimensional, visual, real-time image of a registered probe in relation to the patient's anatomy and pathology. Image guidance facilitates localization of target structures and their anatomical relations and allows the pre-operative planning of the ideal, minimal risk, trajectory. It has become a useful tool in the surgical management of intracra-nial tumors and has also been applied to arteriovenous malformations, pericallosal aneurysms, epilepsy surgery, intracranial endoscopy and spinal surgery. The principal problem is the system's dependence on pre-operatively acquired images; perioperative updating of these images by perioperative magnetic resonance imaging overcomes this difficulty.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.