Advances in optical technology and in neu-roimaging, together with a rising interest in minimally invasive techniques, have resulted in the establishment of modern neuroendoscopy. As with most neurosurgical technologies, there is a regrettable dearth of Class I evidence and, although there are areas in which the benefits appear to be self-evident, this is unsatisfactory. Neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy is currently the primary treatment of choice for selected cases of non-tumorous and tumorous hydrocephalus; the only demonstrable benefit on present evidence is freedom of complications from implanted devices. There are particular applications in the management of shunt complications, intraventricular and paraven-tricular tumors, and non-tumorous cysts. The future may bring more sophisticated applications in conjunction with image guidance. Proper training is essential and the technique should probably remain within the hands of a restricted number of specialists. Unstructured propagation is likely to be associated with avoidable morbidity. Prospective studies are required to evaluate the hazards as well as the benefits in comparison with older approaches. Regulatory authorities should monitor morbidity until the position is clear.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.