Spine Injuries

Fig. 22.6. Illustration of the three-column model of Denis, which describes the structural integrity of the thoracic spine. As defined, the anterior column is made up of the anterior half of the vertebral body, anterior half of the annulus fibrosus and the anterior longitudinal ligament. The middle column consists of the posterior half of the vertebral body, the posterior half of the annulus fibrosus and the posterior longitudinal ligament. The posterior column comprises the supra- and infraspinous ligaments, the ligamentum flavum, articular processes and joint capsules, the laminae and the spinous processes. This three-column model states that instability results when an injury affects two or more columns.

Fig. 22.6. Illustration of the three-column model of Denis, which describes the structural integrity of the thoracic spine. As defined, the anterior column is made up of the anterior half of the vertebral body, anterior half of the annulus fibrosus and the anterior longitudinal ligament. The middle column consists of the posterior half of the vertebral body, the posterior half of the annulus fibrosus and the posterior longitudinal ligament. The posterior column comprises the supra- and infraspinous ligaments, the ligamentum flavum, articular processes and joint capsules, the laminae and the spinous processes. This three-column model states that instability results when an injury affects two or more columns.

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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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