Shunts

Bypassing the site of obstruction to CSF flow or diverting the CSF from the ventricular cavity to a site where it can be more readily absorbed are the basic principles underlying the treatment of hydrocephalus. The ventricular shunt is the mainstay of hydrocephalus treatment and, even in severe hydrocephalus, shunt insertion can have a dramatic effect on the re-expansion of the cortical mantle, particularly in the infant (Fig. 24.3). Neuroendoscopic techniques, in particular third ventriculostomy, also play an important role in the treatment of hydro-cephalus and this subject is dealt with in detail elsewhere.

Numerous shunt systems have been devised and marketed, though all have their shortcomings and are prone to similar complications (see below).

The shunt assemblage comprises a proximal catheter, located in the cerebral ventricle, and a distal catheter draining to some alternative site of CSF absorption, most commonly the peritoneal cavity, but drainage to the pleural cavity or right atrium is occasionally employed. Usually, a valve and reservoir are incorporated into the shunt, although the precise configuration is variable.

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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