One of the most consistent findings in epidemi-ological studies of meningiomas is that these tumors are about twice as common in women as in men. The proposed role of sex hormones in meningioma tumorigenesis is further supported by an observation that breast cancer and meningiomas appear to occur together more frequently than would be expected by chance, and by detection of estrogen and progesterone receptors in meningiomas. While it is well recognized that human meningiomas express progesterone receptors, there is still uncertainty about the presence of estrogen receptors in these tumors. However, the use of polymerase chain reaction method, which is more sensitive than the immunohistochemical or ligand binding assays, reveals that both receptors may be present in most meningiomas. At present, it is not clear whether these receptors are functional in meningioma and whether the therapeutic use of progesterone and/or estrogen inhibitors is beneficial. Nevertheless, the presence/absence of progesterone receptors in meningiomas may have prognostic and therapeutic implications. For example, proliferating meningioma cells do not express progesterone receptors, and tumors with a high proliferative
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.