Relevant Anatomy

The pineal gland has a central location in the brain, such that the distance between it and the surface of any portion of the scalp is almost the same, regardless of which surgical approach is taken to this region. The anatomy of the parenchymal tissue and, more importantly, the vascular structures are critically important in considering the most appropriate approach to these tumors. Pineal tumors occupy the posterior aspect of the third ventricle and the quadrigeminal cistern. They may involve the quadrigeminal plate inferiorly, the posterior commissure and thalamus anterolat-erally and the roof of the third ventricle and splenium superiorly. The arterial supply to the pineal gland is from the medial posterior choroidal artery. The draining veins from the pineal body and habenular trigone are the superior and inferior pineal veins that flow into the vein of Galen or the internal cerebral veins. The veins for the superior and inferior colliculi, the superior and inferior quadrigeminal or tectal veins also flow into the vein of Galen or the superior vermian vein. The basal veins of Rosenthal are lateral to the pineal gland and drain into the vein of Galen or the internal cerebral veins. Immediately superior to the pineal gland are the internal cerebral veins, converging and draining into the vein of Galen, sitting superior and posterior to the gland. The superior vermian vein and precen-tral cerebellar vein lie posterior and inferior to the pineal gland and drain into the vein of Galen as well. From a supratentorial approach, the posterior pericallosal vein and internal occipital vein can also be visualized draining into the vein of Galen.

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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