Patients with head injuries form a spectrum. At one end are those with mild head injuries with no neurological or cognitive impairment. At other end are those with severe brain damage, loss of consciousness, often with ventilator support, and sometimes death. Those who survive tend to go through phases over a period of time: off ventilator; slowly improving level of consciousness; improving mobility and possibly back to society with or without any residual deficits. The mechanisms of this process of recovery could be broadly considered as those concerned with the process of resolution and recovery of damaged nervous tissue and those concerned with compensation . As an example, in a patient with dysphasia following damage to the speech area, speech could improve with recovery and resolution of the neural damage. On the other hand, the patient could compensate using alternative methods of communication. Similarly, a right-handed patient with inability to write after a right hemi-paresis could improve his writing when the damaged hemisphere recovers. Alternatively, he could compensate by learning to write with his left hand. Rehabilitation harnesses the potential of both of these mechanisms and serves to potentate functional independence. Rehabilitation activities are designed to promote the process of tissue recovery, as well as identify alternative compensatory strategies appropriate for the individual in order to return to the pre-morbid state.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.