Primary bony neoplasms of the spine can be either benign or malignant, and optimal management depends upon a precise diagnosis. Unfortunately, many of these lesions are located in poorly accessible places and the approaches for direct or percutaneous biopsy can have substantial risks. When approaching spinal neoplasms, the principles of tumor staging and oncologic resection should be considered. In general, patients presenting with a short duration of symptoms and a rapid progression of neurological findings are more likely to have a malignancy than are those with the slow onset of symptoms. Typically, benign lesions are found in the posterior elements of younger patients, whereas lesions found in the vertebral body in older patients are worrisome for malignancy. One study found that 75% of primary bony tumors involving the vertebral body were malignant, as opposed to 35% when the posterior elements alone were involved. This same study found that 80% of primary tumors were malignant in patients older than 18 years and only 32% were malignant when the patient was younger than 18 years .
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.