tumor-brain interface here that makes radical surgical resection difficult and often impossible. Radical resection can be made even more difficult by the fact that, as Skirboll et al. have shown, tumor cells can infiltrate functioning brain, and histological studies have shown that the MRI scanning can underestimate the depth of tumor infiltration into the brain .
At surgery, with superficially placed tumors, one typically finds an area of the brain where the cerebral gyri are widened. Sometimes the surface of the abnormal area of the brain is paler and less vascular than that of the surrounding brain; sometimes it is more vascular. On opening the cortex, one usually finds that the white matter is firmer than normal, and sometimes slightly darker. The author will still often find it very difficult, after opening the dura, to know whether he has found the tumor or not. Usually it is fairly easy to be certain that one is in the central core of the tumor; the question of navigation, mapping and perioperative smear histology will be dealt with later. The problems arise, if one is aiming for radical resection, as one approaches the peripheral areas of the tumor, where it becomes impossible to know, by purely surgical appearances, whether the white matter is still infiltrated by tumor or not.
Although low-grade gliomas in adults can occur in any part of the brain, they are distinctly unusual in the posterior fossa, which is clearly in contrast to what is found in children. They can occur in any of the "lobes" of the cerebral hemispheres (which, it should be remembered, are relatively arbitrary anatomical boundaries), or deep in the basal ganglia. A few patterns of growth seem to be characteristic, such as the tumors that grow in the frontal lobe and root of the temporal lobe, so that they present on both sides of the Sylvian fissure.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.