Neurosurgery

malformation patients, most embolizations being performed with glue. A variety of catheters were used. Their mortality rate was 1.3%, and their overall complication rate was nearly 40% (severe 6.6%, moderate 15.3%, slight 17.3%). All the complications occurred in less than 4 days and those were directly related to the procedure. Hemorrhage was found in 14 patients, dissection in 4 patients, vasospasm in 2 patients, untoward embolization of normal brain feeders in 7 patients and thromboembolic complications on the arterial side in 5 patients. No venous occlusion occurred.

No predictors for complications were found, with no difference in rates of complications in relation to the size, location or number of treatment sessions, though they found lower complication rates for arteriovenous malformations of less than 30 mm in diameter. Of particular importance is the fact that location in eloquent areas was not accompanied by an increased incidence of complications after embolization. They occluded the arteriovenous malformations totally in 13.3%, 75% of patients were completely treated in combination with stereotactic radiosurgery and a further 10% were operated on.

With respect to their high complication rate, first, the arteriovenous malformations were large and, second, their complications were assessed strictly by a neurologist, independent assessment having always been shown to give a more "honest" rate of complication than assessment by the operator [14].

Embolization and Management of Dural Carotid Cavernous Sinus Fistulas

Carotid cavernous fistulas are abnormal connections between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. They may be bilateral. Presentation is with proptosis, chemosis, retro-orbital pain, bruit and ophthalmoplegia. These lesions may have cranial nerve palsies as their most prominent or sole clinical manifestation [27].

Fistulas may be direct or indirect. Direct fistulas are usually secondary to trauma, often with a single, direct communication between the ICA and cavernous sinus. Indirect fistulas are usually supplied by dural branches of the external carotid artery (ECA) but dural ICA branches may contribute.

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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