Neurosurgery

population, with over 85% of cases occurring during the first two decades of life. Males are affected more frequently than females, with a ratio of 2:1. Radiological imaging with MRI and CT will usually reveal a lytic lesion, with possibly a blastic component. Diagnosis is based upon biopsy of the tumor. Treatment involves a multidisciplinary approach that combines surgical extirpation, radiation and chemothera-peutic protocols. Younger patients tend to have a better prognosis. Survival at 5 years for younger patients approaches 75% [1-4,6,13].

Multiple myelomas (MMs) and solitary plas-macytomas are two manifestations on a continuum of B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Spinal involvement leading to extradural compression is a common finding in multiple myelomas. MMs are the most common malignant neoplasms of bone in adults and affect the spine in 30-50% of reported cases. The thoracic spine is affected most commonly, followed by the lumbar spine and, rarely, the cervical spine (less than 10%). The vertebral body is usually the site of tumor involvement. MM is primarily a disease of the fifth, sixth and seventh decades of life. There is an equal distribution for MM among males and females; however, approximately 75% of solitary plasmacytomas occur in males. Unlike the classic axial skeletal tumor presentation of pain with recumbency, MM lesions are sometimes relieved by rest and aggravated by mechanical agitation, mimicking other degenerative sources of pain. Diagnosis for MM is based upon characteristic serum protein abnormalities and radiological imaging. Plain radiographs and CT can be almost solely diagnostic because of the characteristic oste-olytic picture without sclerotic edges involving the vertebral body and sparing the posterior elements. Treatment and prognosis vary greatly, depending on whether the diagnosis is a solitary plasmacytoma or the systemic MM. Both conditions are exquisitely radiosensitive, but with significantly longer survival rates for solitary plasmacytoma [1-4,6].

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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