rhabdoid cellular features. Kakinuma et al. [25] evaluated 182 meningiomas and found that the Ki-67 SI for recurrent meningiomas (14.78 ± 3.17%) was significantly higher than for nonrecurrent meningiomas (4.71 ± 1.96%). Similarly, May et al. [26] noted that a proliferative index of (19% on flow cytometry was associated with meningioma recurrence.

Several authors have attempted to find neu-roradiological characteristics that can predict recurrence. Mantle et al. [27] reported that the chance of brain invasion and recurrence increased by 20% with each centimeter of brain edema surrounding the meningioma on computed tomography (CT) scanning. Nakasu et al. showed that the "lobulated" or "mushrooming" appearances of meningiomas noted on pre-operative imaging studies correlated with an increased Ki-67 SI and a higher recurrence rate for these tumors. Lobulated tumors showed higher SI (2.85 ± 3.68%) than round tumors (1.06 ± 0.67%). Three of three "mushrooming" type of tumors and seven of 22 (32%) "lobu-lated" tumors recurred, while only five of 74 (7%) "round" meningiomas recurred following the similar extent of resection for all three groups. The median interval for recurrence was 10 months for "mushrooming" tumors, 82 months for the "lobulated" ones, and 111 months for "round" meningiomas [28].

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